r THE LIF OF THOMAS J. JACKSON. BY AN EX-CADET. SECOND EDITION, RE7ISED AND ENLARGED BT THE AUTHOR. IirCHMOND: JAMES E. GOODE. 1864. if THE LIFE OF THOMAS J. JACKSON. BY AN EX-CADET. SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED BY THE AUTHOR. ._»-, RICHMOND: JAMES E. GOOI}E. 1864. Entered according to an act of Congress, By JAMES E. GOODE, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Confederate States, for the Eastern district of Virginia. TO LIEUTENANT-GENERAL R. S. EWELI, this book: DEDICATED. JpfiEFACE TO THE. SECOND EDITION. The success of the first edition of this work has induced the publisher to undertake its repub- lication. The book has been carefully revised by the au- thor, and -considerably enlarged. In the absence of official information, several errors unavoidably entered into the original work". These have been corrected in the present edition, and (it is believed) the book has been very greatly improved. Profoundly grateful for the success of the first edition, the author offers to the public the work in its present form, trusting for its success to the same generous support that has sustained his past labors. Richmond, May 1, 1864. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION, The materials from which this book has been prepared have been collected since June 1861, though for a different purpose. Upon the death of General Jackson, the author determined to pre- pare a sketch of his life, a plan which he had had in contemplation for several months. He had fairly entered upon his task when he learned that a distinguished Southern author was engaged in a similar undertaking. Believing, however, that there is room enough in the South for two such books, he has continued his labor, and the result of it is now offered to the public. He had just put the work in press, when he was informed that another life of General Jackson, and one which is to be more elab- orate than any yet published, was being prepared by the Reverend Doctor Dabney, formerly of General Jackson's staff. Feeling as- sured, however, that there is still room for his book, he has perse- vered and the work is at last ready. He takes this opportunity of expressing his sincere wish that the narratives of both Captain Cooke and Doctor Dabney may meet with the same success that he desires for his own. Many of the incidents related, came under the immediate obser- vation of the author, and the remainder are drawn from authentic sources. The book was completed and put in press on the 29th day of May,- but the failure to procure paper, and other difficulties hard to overcome, have prevented its appearance at an earlier period, October 1863. LIEUTENANT-GENERAL T J JACKSON. THE LIFE LIEUTENANT-GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSON.. It would be difficult for any one to do justice to the narration of such a life as that of Thomas J. Jackson — • a life pure and spotless as the dew of the morning ; grand and glorious as the full blaze of the noontide sun. To a stranger such a task must be an impossibility ; and even one who knew and loved him, may well pause in dismay as he contemplates the magnitude of the task he has imposed upon himself. Many Avill enter upon such an undertaking: some with a desire to preserve to the country and to the world a record of the services of a good and great man ; others from more sordid motives which in this age but too often invade the most sacred places. Among these there is room for one who knew and loved him, to offer his humble tribute to the glorious dead ; and though that tribute may be imperfect, it will be at least the labor of love, and as such, it is hoped, will prove acceptable to those to AYhom it is offered. \Q LiBUTBNAKT-GENfiRAL General Jackson was of English descent. His great- grandfather John Jackson, and his great grandmother, emigrated to tEis country at a very early, day, and settled upon the south bank of the Potomac. They did not re- main there long, however, but soon removed to what is now Lewis county, in the western portion of Virginia. Their son Edward was surveyor of Harrison county, and subsequently represented the county of Lewis in the legislature for several years. In early life, his son Jonathan Jackson, who was born in Lewis county, moved' to the town of Clarksburg in Harrison county, for the purpose of studying law with his cousin Judge John G. Jackson of that place. In due time he received his license and entered upon the prac- tice of his profession with his cousin Judge Jackson. By his practice he acquired some reputation and property, and soon after entering upon his duties he married Miss Neal, a daughter of Thomas Neal of Wood county. By this lady he had four children — two sons and two daugh- ters. Thomas Jonathan Jackson, the youngest of these children, was born in the town of Clarksburg in Harrison county, on the 21st day of January 1824. When he was scarcely three years old his father died, and his mother soon followed. Before his death Mr. Jackson became involved as security for some of his friends, and his pro- perty was swept away. The children were thus left with- out any means of support. Shortly after the death of his parents, Thomas was taken by an uncle to Lewis county. This uncle was liv- ing on the farm on which the father of Thomas had been born, and there the orphan boy remained until he reached THOMAS J. JACKSON. II the age of seventeen years. During this period he spent a portion of his time in working on the farm, and the re- mainder in attending an old field school in the neighbor- hood, where he received the rudiments of a plain English education. From his earliest childhood he exhibited a remarkable degree of self-reliance and energy. He was quiet and reserved, but kind and gentle in his feelings and man- ners. He studied hard while at school, and was prompt and faithful in the discharge of his duties. These quali- ties exhibited in a degree remarkable in one so young, could not fail to attract the attention and win the admi- ration of all with whom he was thrown. Nor were they allowed to pass unrewarded. The people of Lewis wish- ing to assist the young man so bravely struggling to raise himself in the world, conferred upon him the office of constable of the county when he was but sixteen years old. He accepted the appointment, and in spite of his extreme youth, discharged his new duties faithfully and with ability. There are some persons in this world to whom God gives natures and characters older and ma- turer than their years, and young Jackson was one of these. * In his seventeenth year he solicited and received an appointment as cadet in the military academy at West Point, and to accept this position, resigned the office of constable. It is related of him, upon what seems to be good au- thority, that as soon as he heard that there was a vacancy at West Point, he determined to secure it for himself. He immediately set out and walked a long distance through rain and mud to a point from which he could take the ^2 LIEUTEftANT-GENEKAL stage to Washington city. Arriving there be sought oitt Mr. Hays, the member of congress for his district, and travel-stained and with his face flushed with excitement, presented himself before him and told him that he wanted the place at West Point then vacant. Astonished and amused by such a request coming from one who seemed so humble and so unsuited to such a position, Mr. Hays entered into conversation with young Jackson and en- deavored to dissuade him from trying to enter the West Point academy. But the energetic youth was not to be discouraged, and in the conversation evinced such a marked degree of intelligence, that his application was successful and he received the desired appointment. He entered the military academy in 1842, and remained there for four years. While a cadet he was noted for his unwavering attention to his duties. His sen3e of duty was always very high, and his performance of it most faithful. It was necessary for him to study very hard. His mind had not received the advantages of an early education, and he had many difficulties to overcome. He was never content with a partial knowledge of anything : his mind never relaxed its grasp upon a subject until he had thoroughly mastered it. On the 1st of July 1846, Cadet Jackson graduated with high distinction, and was brevettcd second lieutenant amd assigned to duty with the first regiment of artillery of the United States army. The war with Mexico had begun, and there the young and the brave of the country, and especially of the South, were hastening, burning with a noble desire to distinguish themselves in the cause ot the country. The regiment to which Lieutenant Jackson was as- THOMAS J. JACKSON. 13 signed was already in Mexico with the army under Gene- ral Taylor. As soon as he received his orders to join his regiment in Mexico, he lost not a moment in proceeding there, where he arrived late in the year 1846. It was not his fortune to see any active service while under the command of General Taylor, as that portion of the regi- ment to which he was attached was not engaged in any important operations. But the time which was thus af- forded him for studying his new profession and duties was not wasted in idleness. Early in the year 1847, troops were drawn from Gene- ral Taylor's army and sent to the island of Lobos, where General Scott was organizing an expedition against the city of Vera Cruz. Lieutenant Jackson was ordered to that point with his battery. On the 9th of March 1847, the army of General Scott, landed near Vera Cruz, and on the next day began the investment of the city. This Avork was begun by Gene- ral Worth, and was carried on successfully. Batteries commanding the city were erected and armed with siege and naval guns. At last all was ready, and at four o'clock on the afternoon of the 22d of March, the bom- bardment began. Lieutenant Jackson was assigned the command of one of the batteries erected for the destruction of the devoted city. Exposed to great hardships, he exhibited the most unvarying cheerfulness, and, the object of a heavy fire, he worked his guns with such skill and courage as to at- tract the attention of the commanding general and re- ceive his highest commendation. For his "gallant and meritorious conduct" at the siege of Vera Cruz, he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. 14 LIED TENANT-GENERAL After the fall of Vera Cruz, the army advanced to- wards the city of Mexico. On the 18th of April the battle of Cerro Gordo was fought and won. In this action Captain John Bankhead Magruder, (who, like Lieutenant Jackson, had been assigned to duty with the heavy artillery), led the party that stormed the enemy's works at Cerro Gordo. The Mexicans were driven from their strong position. Captain Magruder was the first artillery officer to enter the works. He captured a Mexi- can field battery, which he turned and served with great effect upon their flying columns. General Scott observ- ing this, rode up to him and presented him with the guns, which afterwards became so famous under the name of " Magruder' 's light battery." Lieutenant Jackson was very anxious to be transferred from the heavy artillery service to a field battery ; and as soon as he found that his friend, Captain Magruder, had been placed in command of one, he bent every energy to secure a transfer to that battery. In speaking of this in after years, he remarked to a friend: "I Avanted to see active service. I wished to be near the enemy and in the 'light, and when I heard John Magruder had got his battery, I bent all my energies to be with him, for I knew if there was any fighting to be done, Magruder would be on hand." While Jackson was thus engaged, the army continued to push on, and in August came within sight of the city of Mexico. From almost the same spot where, three hundred years before, Cortes and his followers looked down upon the distant halls of the Montezumas, the Ameri- can army beheld the scenes vliich were soon to be made famous by the gallant deeds they were to achieve there. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 15 The passes on the direct road to the city had been well fortified and garrisoned by the Mexicans, but the coun- try upon the flanks had been left unprotected because their commanders deemed i-t utterly impossible for any troops to pass over it and turn their positions. El Penon, the most formidable of these, was reconnoitered by the engineers, who reported that it would cost at least three thousand lives to carry it. Not wishing to make so great a sacrifice of his troops, General Scott resolved to turn the Dosition instead of attacking it. Eeconnoisances of the city of Mexico and its. defences were ordered, and it was discovered that the works on the - south and west were weaker than those at any other points. General Scott now moved to the left, passed El Penon on the south, and by the aid of a corps of skilful engineers, (fore- most among whom stood Captain Robert E. Lee), moved his army across ravines and chasms which the Mexican commanders had pronounced impassable, and had left almost entirely unguarded. General Twiggs led the ad- vance, and halted and encamped at Chalco on the lake of the same name. "Worth followed, and passing Twiggs, .encamped at the town of San Augustin, eight miles from' the capita-1. As soon as Santa Anna found that the Americans had turned El Penon and advanced towards the south side of the city, he left that fortress and took position in the strong fort of San Antonio, which lay di- rectly in front of Worth's new position. Northwest of San Antonio, and four miles from the city, lay the little village of Churubusco, which had been strongly fortified by the Mexicans. A little to the west of San Augustin was the fortified camp of Contreras with a garrison of about six thousand men. In the rear was a reserve force 10 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL of twelve thousand men lying between the camp and the city. The whole number of Mexicans manning these de- fences was about thirty-five thousand, with at least one hundred pieces of heavy and light artillery. General Persifer F Smith was ordered to advance with his brigade, (the 1st of the 2d division of regulars), and carry the entrenched camp at Contreras, while Shields and Pierce should move between the camp and Santa Anna at San Antonio, and prevent him from going to the assistance of the force at Contreras. At 3 o'clock on the morning of the 20th of August 1847, the ex- pedition set out and at daylight made the attack on the entrenched camp, which was carried after several hours hard fighting ; those of the enemy who escaped retreating to Churubusco. As soon as Contreras was captured, the army advanced upon the works at Churu- busco, and after a stubborn fight succeeded in driving the enemy from them. In these battles Lieutenant Jackson behaved most gal- lantly, and was mentioned " for gallant services" in the official report of General Twiggs. For his conduct in these engagements he was brevetted captain, but this promotion did not reach him until some time afterwards. Lieutenant Jackson had obtained his transfer to the light artillery service, and was ordered to report to Captain Magruder. Of his conduct, Captain Magrucler in his official report, (which is, singularly enough, addressed to Captain J. Hooker), speaks as follows : _ " I reported to General Twiggs, and was ordered by him to advance towards the enemy's battery. * * * About 2 o'clock P. M., the battery was placed in front of the enemy's entrenchments at the distance of about -nine THOMAS' J. JACKSON. 17 hundred yards. * *t * My fire was opened * * * and continued with great rapidity for about an hour. * * In a few moments Lieutenant Jackson, commanding the second section of the battery, who had opened a fire upon the enemy's works from a position on the right, hearing our own fire still farther in front, advanced in handsome style, and being assigned by me to the post so gallantly filled by Lieutenant Johnstone,* kept up the fire with great briskness and effect. * * * * Lieutenant Jackson's conduct was equally conspicuous throughout the whole day, ami I cannot too highly com- mend him to major-general's favorable consideration." After the death of Lieutenant Johnstone, Jackson be- came first lieutenant of the battery, and filled that post with skill and distinction. On the 8th of September the battle of Ml Molino del Hey was fought and won by the American army. Having determined to carry the city of Mexico by storm, General Scott gave orders for the final assault. On the morning of the loth September 1817, the attack was begun, and by night the strong castle of Chapultepec and the Belen and San Cosme gates of the city had been carried by the American troops. Early the next morn- ing (the 14th) the city was taken possession of. In the actions which led to the capture of the city, Lieutenant Jackson behaved with flic most conspicuous gallantry, and as a reward for his services was brcvetted major. In his official report of the battle of Chapultepec, General Scott speaks of him as follows: " To the nori.h ami at the base of the mound inaces- i(1 ''ill' '; a (*■'"•," r.'iiv.n*P!5 V^foi-i 18 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL sible on that side, the 11th infantry under Lieutenant- colonel Herbert, and the 14th under Colonel Trousdale, and Captain Magruder's field battery 1st artillery, one section advanced under Lieutenant Jackson — all of Pil- low.'s division — had, at the same time, some spirited affairs against superior numbers, driving the enemy from a battery in the road and capturing a gun. In these the officers and corps named gained merited praise. * * * * Having turned the forest on the west, and arriving oppo- site to the north centre of Chapultepec, Worth came up with the troops in the road under Colonel Trousdale, and aided by a flank movement of a part of Garland's brigade, in taking the one gun breastwork, then under fire of Lieutenant Jackson's section of Magruder's battery." In the official report of General Worth, I find the fol- lowing complimentary notice of the brave young artille- rist : " After advancing some four hundred yards we came to a battery which had been assailed by a portion of Ma- gruder's field guns — particularly the section under the gallant Lieutenant Jackson, who, although he had lost most of his horses and many of his men, continued chi- valrously at his post combatting with noble courage." In closing his report, General Worth tenders his ac- knowledgments to Lieutenant Jackson " for gallant con- duct." General Pillow says : " I had placed Colonel Trousdale with the 11th and 14th regiments, and one section of Magruder's battery, under command of Lieutenant Jackson, on the road lead- ing on the left of Chapultepec to the city, with instruc- tions to advance on that road. * * * * Magruder's "a* THOMAS J. JACKSON. 19 field battery engaged a battery and a large force of the enemy in the road immediately on the west of Chapulte- pec. The advanced section of the battery, under the command of the brave Lieutenant Jackson, was dread- fully cut up and almost disabled. * * * * Captain Magruder's field battery, one section of which was served with great gallantry by himself, and the other by his brave lieutenant, Jackson, in the face of a galling fire from the enemy's entrenched positions, did' invaluable service preparatory to the general assault." The account given in the report of Captain Magruder is more complete, and I give it entire, as nearly as pos- sible. This report embraces descriptions of events which occurred on the 8th, 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th of Sep- tember. It is as follows : " On the 8th instant at daylight, I was directed by Major-general Pillow to move rapidly from the hacienda, near Mixcoac, through Tacubaya, to support, if necessary, Major-general Worth's division, then fiercely engaged with the enemy near Chapultepec. This order was com- plied with, and I arrived on the field in time to witness the defeat of the enemy * * * and to assist in driving off a large body of cavalry which threatened our left flank and rear ; the latter was done by a few well directed shots from the section under the immediate com- mand of Lieutenant Jackson. * * * On the 9th the division occupied the village of La Piedad, in front of which a section under command of Lieutenant Jackson was placed ; another being on the Piedad road. Finding that Lieutenant Jackson's section was nearer the enemy's lines, and that no attack would probably take place on the Piedad road, I took my post, on the 10th, 20 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL with 'this advanced section, retaining with me Lieuten- ant Jackson. * * * On the morning of the 13th, I was directed by Major-general Pillow com- manding, to place the latter section, under command of Lieutenant Jackson, at the opposite angle— that is, on the left flank of Chapultepec. * * * As soon as our storming parties advanced sufficiently near the enemy to render my fire dangerous to our own troops, I received orders to join the other section of the battery at the left angle, and holding it in hand until the main work was carried, to dash forward upon the retreating foe. On reaching the spot where Lieutenant Jackson's section ought to have been, I found Lieutenant-colonel Herbert with but seventy men threatened seriously by the approach of a large body of infantry and cavalry. I had determined to leave one piece at this point and to unite the other with Lieutenant Jackson's section, when I received a message from him requesting a reinforce- ment of old troops. General Worth being near, I com- municated with him, and was ordered to withdraw Lieu- tenant Jackson's section to the anc;le above mentioned. As I rode up into this section I was dismounted by a grapeshot, but without material injury, and succeeded in finding Lieutenant Jackson, whose section was, however, so situated as to render it more unsafe to return than to remain where it was. * * * Lieutenant Jackson reports that he was ordered to that position by Colonel Trousdale of the 14th infantry, under whose command he had fallen ; that on finding a battery of the enemy supported by a large force of infantry within short i"mge of him across the road, he fired as soon as he could bvmg a -.ncce into battery, und drove the enemv from the THOMAS J. JACKSON. 21 piece and work, after which the infantry entered it. When I arrived, Lieutenant Jackson was still in the advance, having caused a piece to be lifted by hand over the ditch. I detached instantly a few men to disentangle and bring up the disabled piece ; and passing the ditch, now nearly filled up by the infantry, soon overtook Lieutenant Jack- son, who had fired several times upon the enemy's re- treating columns before my arrival. * * I beg leave to call the attention of the major-general command- ing the division to the conduct of Lieutenant Jackson of the 1st artillery. If devotion, industry, talent and gal- lantry are the highest qualities of a soldier, then he is entitled to the distinction which their possession confers. I have been ably seconded in all the operations of the battery by him ; and upon this occasion, when circum- stances placed him in command for a short time of an in- dependent section, he proved himself eminently worthy of it." Among the many traditions concerning Lieutenant Jackson's exploits in the war with Mexico, which are preserved with the most scrupulous fidelity by the cadets of the Military Institute, is one relating to his conduct in the battle of Chapultepec. I give it as it is told there. Lieutenant Jackson had been placed, with his section of the battery, in front of a formidable battery of the enemy which was protected by a breastwork. His sec- tion had suffered fearfully from the enemy's fire, and he had lost many men. Many of those who remained un- hurt, were endeavoring to shelter themselves from the terrible fire which the enemy was hurling upon them. LieuteUbnt Jackson and a sergeant remained by one of the guns loading and firing as coolly as if they had been 22 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL only at artillery practice. While in this situation, Cap- tain Magruder arrived with orders from General Worth to remove the section. This was found to be impracti- cable. The men were called to their guns again, assist- ance was sent forward by General Worth, and the battery advanced nearer to the enemy's works, not for an instant slackening its fire. The enemy abandoned the work and fled, and the American troops including Jackson's com- mand, entered and took possession of it. In 1858 the graduating class at the Military Institute resolved to ascertain the truth of the story by question- ing Major Jackson himself. Accordingly one of them related the incident as he had heard it, and turning to Major Jackson, asked : "Is it true, major?" Major Jackson smiled quietly and replied that it was. "That was a very hot place, was'nt it, major ?" asked another of the class. " Yes, sir — very hot," was the answer. " Why didn't you run, major ?" asked a third abruptly. A suppressed laugh ran around the class. Major Jack- son smiled and replied : " I was not ordered to do so. If I had been ordered to run I would have done so ; but I was directed to hold my position, and I had no right to abandon it." The reply was eminently characteristic of the gallant soldier. Duty was with him the first thought ; and in the performance of it no obstacle was too great to be overcome. _ It is related also of him, that during the time his sec- tion was exposed to the fire of the enemy, whil Aifi men were trying to shelter themselves from the storm of balls THOMAS J. JACKSON. Zo t •which swept around them, paying no attention to his re- monstrances, he walked out into the road, and pacing up and down before his guns exposed to the heavy fire, called to the men — " Come back to your guns. This is nothing. Don't you see they can't hurt me ?" The capture of the city of Mexico struck a death blow to the power of the enemy. Shortly afterwards peace was declared and the army returned to the United States. This for awhile closed the military career of Major Jackson, -which, though short, had been most brilliant. He had joined the army in Mexico late in 1846, an un- known brevet second lieutenant of artillery, with nothing to depend upon for promotion but his individual efforts, and in the brief campaign from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico, had reached the high rank of major — a series of promotions unequalled by those of any other person con- nected with the army of General Scott. The severe service through which he passed in Mexico, together with the climate of that country, had so im- paired the health of Major Jackson, that shortly after the close of the war he w r as forced to resign his commis- sion in the army and retire to private life. In' 1851 he applied for and received the appointment of professor of natural and experimental philosophy and astronomy and the post of instructor of artillery at the Military Institute of Virginia, situated near the town of Lexington in the county of Rockbridge.* He immedi- ately entered upon the discharge of his duties and re- mained at the Institute until the year 1861. * It has been said that Mejor Jackson received his appointment in 1852. Gen. Smith, superintendent of the V M. I., states that the ap- pointment was made in March 1851. 24 LIE i'TENANT-GENERAL While living in Lexington lie made a profession of re- ligion and connected himself with the Presbyterian church, having for his pastor that good old man, the Rev. Dr. White. After connecting himself with the church, Major Jackson became an active and prominent member of it, and filled successively and almost during the entire period of his residence in Lexington, important secular positions in it. His zeal and activity in the cause of religion were always among his most striking character- istics, but while he labored constantly, he labored quietly and modestly. Shortly after his removal to Lexington, he married Miss Junkin, daughter of the Rev Dr. Junkin, the presi- dent of Washington college. The lady did not long sur- vive her marriage. By this union Major Jackson had one child, a daughter, who died in -infancy. Several years after the death of his first wife, he married Miss Morrison of North Carolina, who is still living. By this second marriage he had one child, a daughter, born a few months before his death. The life of Major Jackson, while a professor at the Institute, was marked by very little of importance. It was quiet and peaceful, but always useful. For nearly ten years he continued patiently and humbly to implant in the minds and hearts of the youth of Virginia who were placed under his charge, those teachings which have since enabled them to win for themselves immortal fame, and to serve their country so well in her hour of need. The Militar j Institute -of Virginia has furnished to the South a number of most able and accomplished officers, ^UHWho B l la n say that the hand' of God did not place •^yov Jackson in his humble Dositien " n - ( W tHt be THOMAS J. JACKSON. 25 might aid in preparing the youth of his native state for the trials and services which were one day to he required of them.* Major Jackson was not as popular among the cadets as were some of the other professors'; but none possessed in such an exalted degree their respect and deference. He was quiet and sometimes stern in his deportment. He had many little peculiarities which were by the cadets deemed wonderful. His quiet, blunt manner was con- sidered by them a species of eccentricity ; and the pecu- liar style in which he gave his commands when at drill with the battery, (that long, drawling style so common to regular officers), never failed, to provoke a laugh. In the section room he would sit perfectly erect and motionless, holding his pencil in one hand and his class book in the other, listening with grave attention and exhibiting the great powers of his wonderful memory, which was, I think, the most remarkable that ever came under my ob- servation. The course he taught was the most difficult and complicated known to mathematics, running through at least half a. dozen text books. In listening to a reci- tation he very rarely used a book. He was ready at any * Accompanying the annual report of Adjutant-general Richardson to the general assembly of Virginia, is a document entitled " Memo- rial of the eleves of the Virginia Military Institute, in the war of in- dependence of the Confederate States of America, 1861-62." It pre- sents a list of the graduates of that institution who have entered the service, the positions they hold, and the fates of those who have been wounded or killed in battle. From this it appears that they consist as follows : Brigadier-generals, 8; colonels, 57; lieutenant-colonels, 42; majors, 45 ; captains, 110; lieutenants, 11 ; volunteer privates 11 ; of general and regimental staff, 81. Total, 431. 4 26 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL moment to refer to any page or line in any of the books and then to repeat with perfect accuracy the most difficult passages that could be referred to. Sometimes he would startle his classes with questions the most irrelevant to the subject of the recitation and which very few were able to answer. The following incident may serve to illustrate this : one morning in 1858 he called up a member of the graduating class and propounded the following question: " Why is it impossible to send a telegraphic dispatch from Lexington to Staunton?" The cadet seemed surprised at being asked such a ques- tion, but endeavored i$ account for the difficulty by sta- ting that the iron in the mountains would draw the mag- netic current from the wires. A smile passed over the major's features, and he cut him short in his explanation with : "No, sir. You can take your seat." Another was called up, and he was equally unable to shed any light upon the mystery. Another shared the same fate, and another still, and all the while Major Jack- son evinced in his quiet way the greatest amusement at the perplexity of the unfortunate individuals. At last the question had gone nearly around the class. A young man, whose humor and audacity had made him famous among his comrades, was called up and asked to explain the matter. For awhile he, too, seemed completely non- plussed ; but then his countenance suddenly brightening, he turned to the major and exclaimed slyly : Well, major, I reckon it must be because there is no telegraph between the two places !" " Y °? are ri S ht > sil V said Major Jackson, now as grave as a judge. « You can take your seat," THOMAS J. JACKSON. 27 A shout of laughter greeted this remark, and the major looked on as calmnly as if nothing had happened, and when order was restored, returned to the subject of the recitation with the most perfect coolness. His even temper was sorely tried by the annoyance to which the cadets subjected him. It was their greatest delight to worry the professors — especially " Old Jack," as he was familiarly called. The drill battery Avas man- aged by drag ropes, which were manned hj the junior classes ; the first and second classes acting as officers and cannoniers. At drill the cadets detailed to act as horses, would play all kinds of pranks upon him. Some- times a lynch pin would be taken from the axle of one of the gun carriages, and the wheel would of course run off, and the carriage, caisson or limber, as the case might be, break down. Again, some one would hang a small bell inside of the limber box, and this would tinkle merrily whenever the battery would move off, causing the cadets to break into shouts of laughter. Major Jackson would halt the battery and examine every piece, but could never discover where the bell was concealed, and not finding it, would order the pieces to move forward; but no sooner would they move off, than the bell would begin again its merry tinkle, causing renewed shouts of laughter. Again, the officers would mimic the manner in which he gave his commands. One movement was an especial favorite with him — that of bringing the battery into eehelon ; and whenever the command to form echelon, with its usual accompaniment, "right oblique, trot, march!" was given, the whole parade ground would ring with the commands of the cadet officers, uttered in the most rediculously drawling manner. One evening when 28 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL this had been carried to a great excess, to the infinite amusement of the corps, the adjutant approached Major Jackson and asked him how he was pleasedVith the drill. Very much, sir," replied the major. Then he added, with a sly smile : " the officers gave very fine commands this afternoon." The artillery drills were very uninteresting to the corps, unless cartridges were issued. Tlien 1 have never seen any of the famous light batteries of either the federal or confederate armies excel them in proficiency of drill or rapidity of movements. As soon as the sound of the guns would fall upon his ears, a change would seem to come over Major Jackson. lie would grow more erect ; the grasp upon his sabre would tighten ; the quiet eyes would flash ; the large nostrals would dilate, and the calm grave face would glow with the proud spirit of the warrior. I have been frequently struck with this, and have often called the attention of others to it. Per- haps he was thinking of the scenes through which he had passed in that far-ofi land, with whose history his name is so imperishably connected. No one for an instant doubted Major Jackson's skill and talants, (indeed the proofs of them were too constant and striking to leave room for doubt,) but he sometimes made some laughable mistakes, at which none seemed more amused than himself. Upon one occasion he informed one of his classes that the clock in front of the Institute did not give the right time, and declared his intention to correct it. He accor- dingly led the class out upon the parade ground, and arranging his instruments, prepared to take Ids observa- tions for the purpose of ascertaining the true time. He 'THOMAS J. JACKSON. 29 finished his work about half-past twelve o'clock in the afternoon, and to his great astonishment discovered that it was nearly seven in the evening. The announcement of the result created a great deal of merriment, in which he joined. It was afterwards discovered that the instru- ment used was out of order, and the observations were necessarily incorrect. A cadet was once dismissed from the Institute in con- sequence of a charge being brought and sustained against him by Major Jackson. Filled with rage he vowed re- venge ; and arming himself, took his position on the road leading from the Institute into Lexington about the time Major Jackson usually passed by on his way to meet his classes, intending to shoot him whenever he should ap- pear. A friend heard of this, and meeting Major Jack- son on his way to the Institute, warned him of his danger and urged him to turn back. This he refused to do, say- ing — " Let the assassin murder me, if he will !" esteem- ing his duty more important than his life. When he reached the place where the young man was Avaiting for him, he turned to him and gazed calmly at him. The young man turned away in silence, and Major Jackson continued his walk. It was always with him a matter of unpleasantness to be compelled to bring charges against a cadet, and he would seek by every means in his power, consistent with his duty, to avoid such a necessity. When the cadet battery was in Charlestown during the " John Brown Ayar," he chanced to see in front of one of the hotels, a number of cadets, some of whom had been making very free with the mean whiskey of the place. Suspecting this, Major Jackson turned clown a cross street and avoided passing the group. Had he recognized the 30 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL offenders, they would have been dismissed, and he wished to avoid seeing them in order that he might not be forced to report them. It was a fact well known among the cadets, that he made fewer reports than any other professor, and that his reports were the most difficult to have removed. The reason of this is obvious. He was always accessible and ever ready to render assistance to those who needed it. He would take any amount of trouble to aid his pupils in mastering the difficulties which presented themselves to them. But no one could be at all familiar with him. His reserve, which many persons called coldness, prevented this. Yet no one could withhold the admiration and esteem which such a nature as his could not fail to com- mand. A kinder, more generous and a nobler spirit was never placed within a human breast than that which glowed within the heart of Major JacksDn. Punctuality and promptness were among his most stri- king characteristics, and he never neglected an opportu- nity to commend the exhibition of these qualities by other persons. I never knew him to be late but once. It is the custom of the Institute to celebrate with great pomp the 11th of November, (the anniversary of its establishment). Upon this day a salute is always fired at sunrise. It was Major Jackson's duty to superintend the salute firing. Upon one occasion he chanced to oversleep himself, and did not reach the Institute until after the adjutant of the corps had fired the salute. The latter officer, when he saw Major Jackson, expected to receive a severe reprimand for rmg the guns before the arrival of his superior. Major firiZ ^' ho 7 eVei '' at ° nce c °™*ended his promptness in fi»ng the salute, and explained the cause of his delay. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 31 General Smith, the superintendent of the Institute, in speaking of his punctuality, says he has known him fre- quently to pace the yard in front of headquarters, in the roughest weather, rather than be too late to attend to whatever business might call him there. In 1859, when the "John Brown raid" occurred, Ma- jor Jackson was ordered to Charlestown with the cadet battery, where he remained until after the execution. Those who witnessed that event will not fail to remember the attention he attracted as he rode out of the town in command of the battery on the morning of the 2nd of December. While there he gave more than his usual at- tention to the training of the cadets. Every morning he exercised them at the guns and in the school of the battery over one of the most rugged sections of country in the state. In 1861, when the proclamation of Abraham Lincoln forced the South to fty to arms in defence of her rights, Major Jackson was ordered by Governor Letcher to repair to Richmond and take command of the " Camp of instruc- tion," located at the " Fair grounds" near the city. On the 20th of April he left Lexington, and as soon as he reached Richmond, entered upon the discharge of his du- ties. He was commissioned a colonel in the state forces — this being the first colonel's commission issued by the state. As soon as he had taken charge of " Camp Lee," he bent every energy to accomplish the task of organi- zing and disciplining the large bodies of raw troops that were flocking in daily from all portions of the state. He did not remain long in this position, as his services were needed at another point. The confederate government seeing that Virginia was to be the theatre of war, began very early to pour its ■32 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL troops into that state. The most important places were occupied and fortified. Among these was the town of Harpers Ferry, which was built upon a 'point of land at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers. This being considered a place of great importance, a force was collected there, and Colonel Jackson assigned the command. On the 2d of May 1861, he took com- mand at Harpers Ferry and began to place the post in a state of defence. On the 23d of May he was relieved, and succeeded by General Joseph E. Johnston. " The force at that point then consisted of nine regiments and two battalions of infantry, four companies of artillery with sixteen pieces, without caissons', harness or horses, and about three hundred cavalry — they were of course undisciplined — several regiments without accoutrements, and with an entirely inadequate supply of ammunition."* Colonel Jackson was assigned the command of the 1st brigade of the army of the Shenandoah, (as the force under General Johnston was styled), and while at Har- pers Ferry, rendered great assistance to his commanding general. Having collected a large number of troops, the fede- ral government prepared for the opening of the campaign in northern Virginia. On the Potomac line they held the town of Alexandria, from which they threatened General Beauregard's army at Manassas, and a strong column u^der Major-general Patterson, was advancing through Maryland towards Harpers Ferry. Colonel (now major-general) Stuart was ordered by eneral Johnston to observe the shore of the Potomac * Gen. Johnston's report. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 33 and report the movements of Patterson's column, which duty he performed Avith great skill and success. Colonel (now lieutenant-general) A. P, Hill, with three regiments of Infantry, was sent to Eomney to observe, and if pos- sible check the movements of General McClellan, who was reported marching from Western Virginia towards the Valley for the purpose of uniting his forces with those of General Patterson. It was of the greatest importance to prevent the junction of these columns, should such a step be contemplated. Patterson was reported at or near Williamsport, and it was evidently his intention to cross the Potomac. As soon as he was convinced that the enemy were about to enter Virginia, General Johnston evacuated Harpers Perry, which he had held for the purpose of drawing them over the river, and moved towards Mar- tinsburg, upon which point the enemy were advancing. Pie marched rapidly, but when he reached the neighbor- hood of Martinsburg, found that the enemy, having been informed of his approach, had retired across the Poto- mac. General Johnston now marched to Winchester. On the 20th of June he sent Colonel Jackson, with his brigade, to the neighborhood of Martinsburg to watch the enemy and check their advance. While there, Colo- nel Jackson, in obedience to orders, entered the town of Martinsburg and destroyed such of the rolling stock and other property of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad as he could not bring away. " A number of locomotives and cars were successfully carried to Winchester, but more than forty of the largest and finest engines, with others, old and disabled, and nearly three hundred box and plat- form and iron ears were destroyed." The road was torn 34 LIEUTENANT-GENEBAL up and the bridges destroyed for some distance ; thus in- flicting a serious loss upon the enemy. On Thursday, 2d July 1861, the federal army under General Patterson, crossed the Potomac a second time, at Williamsport, and moved towards Martinsburg. As soon as he was informed of this, Colonel Jackson broke up his camp, which was located about two miles north of the town, and advanced to meet the enemy. Having proceeded a short distance he halted his brigade, and de- taching a part of the 5th Virginia regiment, (Harper's), a small portion of Col. Stuart's cavalry, and one gun from Pendleton's battery, in all about 380 men, moved forward towards the Potomac to reconnoitre the enemy's position and ascertain his strength. Arriving near Fall- ing Waters, he found the federal troops drawn up in line of battle. This force consisted of Patterson's advanced brigade under Brigadier-general George Cadwallader, and numbered between three and five thousand men, with a fine battery of field artillery. The action was opened by a dash of two companies of Stuart's cavalry upon that portion of the enemy's forces which was the first to ar- rive upon the field. As soon as he came up with the main body, Colonel Jackson, skilfully taking a position which enabled him to conceal the smallness of his force, at once engaged the enemy. The battle began at 9 o'clock in the morning and was fought with great vigor for an hour, when the firing grew more gradual, and continued so until the close of the engagement. About 12 o'clock, Colonel Jackson, finding that the enemy were making great efforts to outflank him, which the superiority of their force would enable them to do, drew off his men and retired to his main body ; the enemy making no attempt at a pur- THOMAS J. JACKSON. 35 suit. Having rejoined his main column, he continued his retreat through Martinsburg and halted at a little place called Darkesville, about four miles south of the town, where he was joined by General Johnston, who had ad- vanced to his support with the army of the Shenandoah. In this affair, Colonel Jackson lost two killed and ten wounded. The enemy lost a large number killed and wounded, and forty-five taken prisoners. This has al- ways been justly regarded as one of the most brilliant exploits of the war. With a mere handful of men, Colo- nel Jackson had, for three hours, held in check a force of ten times his own numbers, had repulsed every attack made upon him, had inflicted a severe loss upon the enemy and had impressed them so deeply with a sense of his skill and strength, that they had allowed him to retire unmolested. It was a severe blow for an invading army, composed entirely of raw troops, to meet with such a de- cided check from so small a force upon their first entrance into a hostile country. Surely it must have impressed them most deeply with the conviction that the task of conquering the South would be anything but child's play. General Patter3on telegraphed to Washington that his army had "routed and put to flight ten thousand of the rebels." The defeat, however, was too plain to be smoth- ered over by such a bare-faced lie, and a telegram soon afterwards appeared in a Louisville paper, which stated that the federals had " evidently nothing encouraging to communicate." General Johnston waited four days for General Patter- son, who had occupied Martinsburg, to come out and give him battle; but that officer declined doing so. The les- 36 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL son taught him at Falling W aters was not without its effect. He was in no hurry to meet the men who had given him such a decided check as that which he had ex- perienced on the 2d of July. Finding that General Pat- terson would not come out and fight him, General John- ston fell back to Winchester. A few days after the arrival of the army at Winches- ter, Colonel Jackson received the commission of briga- dier-general in the provisional army of the Confederate States. This promotion was intended as a reward for his valuable services during the war. but especially his con- duct at Falling Waters. The promotion was richly mer- ited and gave great satisfaction to the arm;/. The 1st brigade of the army of the Shenandoah, com- manded by General Jackson, consisted of the 2d, 4th, 5th, 27th and 33d Virginia regiments, and Pendleton's light battery. A finer body of troops never marched to battle. They were proud of their gallant commander, and it was not long before this feeling of pride was changed to one of almost idolatry. General Jackson was kind to and careful of his men, never neglecting anything that could contribute to their comfort. He at all times preserved the most rigid discipline among them, and this was in a great measure the cause of their wonderful success. One of his most striking characteristics was his great attention to details. He nedccted nothing that could contribute to the comfort or safety of his men or the succe.ss of his undertakings. On the march he was gen- erally near his wagon trains, superintending in person their movements. The following incident is related of him : Upon one occasion, one of his wagons stuck fast in a. mud hole; the wagoners were cursing and belaboring THOMAS J. JACKSON. 37 the mules without making any effort to prize the wagon out of the hole. At this moment General Jackson hap- pened to ride up. Seeing the difficulty he at once dis- mounted from his old sorrel, and taking a rail from a neighboring fence, went to work in good earnest to place the wagon on dry ground. Instantly the wagoners ceased cursing and put their shoulders to the wheel to help the general. In a short time the wagon was safely landed on solid ground, and then General Jackson superintended the filling up of the hole in order to allow the rest of the train to pass by in safety. He fully appreciated the power of his example, and never lost sight of the importance of giving his personal attention to the minutest detail. On the 18th of July, General Johnston began his cele- brated march from Winchester to Manassas. Jackson's brigade led the advance, and upon arriving at Piedmont on the Manassas gap railroad, was embarked on the cars, and, together with Bee s and Bartow's bi'igades, sent forward to Manassas. General Jackson reached Manassas on the 20th of July, and was ordered to station himself on the lines of Bull run, in the rear of Blackburn's and Mitchell's fords,, in order that he might be enabled to support either Gene- ral Longstreet at the former, or General Bonham at the latter point, as the occasion might require.* * The Rev. Dr. Moore, of Richmond, in a sermon iu memory of Jack- son, narrates the following incident: t "Previous to the first battle of Manassas, when the troops under Stonewall Jackson had made a forced March, on halting at night the}' fell on the ground exhausted and faint. The hour arrived for setting the watch for the night. The officer of the day went to the 38 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL The enemy having determined to endeavor to turn the left flank of the confederate army, began their attack at half-past five o'clock on the morning of the 21st July, upon Colonel Evans position at the " Stone bridge." A few hours later, Colonel Evans being satisfied as to their intentions, moved farther to the left, and changing his front, awaited their attack. They soon appeared, and the battle began at quarter to ten o'clock. Evans' little band, though assailed by overwhelming numbers, held their ground firmly until the arrival of General Bee with reinforcements. The battle continued to rage. In about an hour General Bee, in order to avoid being outflanked by the enemy, who were pressing upon him from alj points, fell back towards the Henry house. About seven o'clock in the morning, General Jackson was ordered to move with his brigade, together with Im- boden's and five pieces of Walton's batteries, and guard the intervals between Bonham's left and Cocke's right, and to support either in case of need — the character and topographical features of the country being shown to him by Captain Harris of the engineers. Shortly afterwards Imboden s guns were sent forward with General Bee to the assistance of Colonel Evans. Soon after this, Gene- ral Jackson moved to the support of General Bee, who was sorely pressed by the dense masses of the enemy general's tent and said ' General, the men are all wearied, and there is not one but is asleep. Shall I wake them '?' ' No,' said the noble Jackson^ 'let them sleep, and I will watch the camp to-night.' And all night long he rode lound that lonelj- camp, the one lone sentinel for that brave, but weary and silent body of Virginia heroes. And when glorious morning broke, the soldiers awoke fresh and ready for action, all unconscious of the noble vigils kept over their slumbers.' 7 THOMAS J. JACKSON. 39 which were surging heavily upon him. He came into action and formed his brigade in line of battle, just as the, torn and shattered fragments of Bee's forces, then in great danger of being routed, reached the plateau on which the Henry house is situated. The enemy finding that the steady front which the gallant " first brigade' presented could not be broken, paused in their pursuit. Order was restored along the lines, and soon Generals Beauregard and Johnston arrived upon the field. While the army was being reorganized, and the new line of bat- tle arranged, the artillery of the two armies became hotly engaged. This brief rest given to the infantry, afforded the confederates an opportunity to reform their lines, and, beyond a doubt, saved the victory then trembling in the balance. It was due to the promptness of General Jackson in moving forward from the position to which he had been assigned early in the morning, and bringing his brigade into position with such celerity and skill, thereby checking the pursuit. About two o'clpck in the afternoon, General Beaure- gard ordered the whole of the right of his line (except the reserves) to advance and drive the enemy from the plateau. This was done with spirit. "At the same time Jackson's brigade pierced the enemy's centre with the determination of veterans and the spirit of men who fight for a sacred cause, but it suffered severely."* The enemy fell back ; but soon receiving large bodies of fresh troops, pressed forward again and recovered their lost ground. About three o'clock in the afternoon, Gen- eral Beauregard, having received a small reinforcement, * General Beauregard's report. 40 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL resolved to advance his lines and drive the enemy from the plateau, and accordingly orders were issued for the execution of this movement. The army had suffered terribly— particularly the bri- gade of General Bee. In that brigade every field officer and nearly all of the company officers had fallen, and the heroic regiments which composed it were on the point of beinp- overwhelmed. Just at this moment the order wa3 given to charge the enemy's lines. Riding up to General Jackson, who sat on his horse calm and unmoved, though severely wounded in the hand. General Bee exclaimed in a voice of anguish : " General, they are beating us back !" General Jackson glanced around him for a moment. His large eyes flashed and his features shone with a glo- rious light. Turning to General Bee, he said calmly : " Sir, we'll give them the bayonet." Then placing himself at the head of his brigade, he thundered : " Forward !" The men sprang forward with a cheer, and swept like a whirlwind upon the startled foe. Hastening back to his men, General Bee cried enthu- siastically, as he pointed to Jackson : "Look yonder! There is Jackson standing like a stone wall ! Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Follow me!" Then placing himself at the head of his shattered col- umn, General Bee led it forward, (animated by the glori- ous example of General Jackson and his men), in that noble charge, the success of which was purchased with his pure life. The charge of Jackson's men was terrific. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 41 The enemy were swept before them like chaff before a whirlwind. Nothing could resist its impetuosity. The men seemed to have caught the dauntless spirit and de- termined will of their heroic commander, and nothing could stay them in their onward course. The 27th Vir- ginia regiment, in this brilliant charge, captured the greater portion of Rickett's and Griffin's batteries, and the flag of the 1st Michigan regiment.* The name won that day by the brigade and its general, is immortal. Just as the final assault, which ended in their rout, was being made upon the enemy's lines, General Jackson was informed that Keyes' brigade of Tyler'3 division of the federal army was approaching for the purpose of out- flanking the confederate forces. He at once ordered Al- burtis' battery (supported by a small force of infantry) to a point overlooking the road by which the enemy were ad- vancing. A few shots from this battery and Latham's guns, which had taken position a little to the left, forced the federals to retire. In the final attack upon the enemy's lines, the brigade of General Jackson greatly distinguished itself, and drove the enemy from the field. The victory gained by the confederate army was complete, and no one contribu- ted more largely to it than General Jackson. The wound in the hand, he received in the early part of the day. It was severe and painful ; but he refused to leave the field, and continued in command of his bri- gade until the close of the action.! * Gen. Beauregard's report. -j- Captain Cooke in his biography of General Jackson, relates the following incident, as .happening at this battk' : " While Jackson s wound was b'eiug dressed, some orre said, Here 6 42 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL The appeal of General Bee to his troops became widely spread throughout the army and the South. The troops, as a mark of their high esteem and admiration for Gene- ral Jackson, bestowed upon him the flattering title of " Stonewall Jackson." This name, so eminently char- acteristic of him, was readily adopted by all, and became so common that he was very rarely spoken of by any other. So universal did the habit become, that many persons devoutly believed he had no other name ; and this gave rise to many amusing blunders. It is said that upon one occasion General Jackson received a letter ad- dressed to " General Stone W Jackson.' 1 The valuable services of General Jackson were ac- knowledged by General Johnston in his report of the battle ; and it is there stated that the victory was due, in a great degree, to his skill and bravery. General Beau- regard speaks of him as follows : " The conduct of Gen- eral Jackson also requires mention as eminently that of an able, fearless soldier and sagacious commander — one fit to lead his efficient brigade; his prompt, timely arrival before the plateau of the Henry house, and his judicious disposition of his troops, contributed much to the success of the day. Although painfully wounded in the hand, he remained on the field to the end of the battle, render- ing valuable assistance." The brilliant services of General Jackson procured for him the commission of major-general. In the fall of 1861 the confederate army in Virginia comes the president !' He threw aside the surgeons, rose suddenly to his feet, and whirling his old cap around his head, cried, with the fire of battle in his eyes : 'Hurrah for the president! Give me ten thousand men, and I'll be in Washington to-night.' " THOMAS J. JACKSON. 48 ■was reorganized. The army of the Potomac, consisting of the forces lying along the Potomac, south of Harpers Ferry, was organized into several corps d'armee — the troops in the neighborhood of Centreville and Manassas being under the immediate command of General Beaure- gard. The troops at Winchester, those in the Valley of Virginia, and the commands of Generals Loring and Hemy R. Jackson in Western Virginia, were organized into a separate army, which was styled the " Army of the Monongahela." The t-upreme command of the armies of the Potomac and the Monongahela was conferred upon General Joseph E. Johnston. Having received his commission as major-general, Gen- eraj Jackson was ordered to proceed to Winchester and take command of the army of the Monongahela. This he at once prepared to do. Before leaving the army of the Potomac, he took an affecting farewell of the troops with whom he had been so long and so intimately con- nected. On the morning of the 4th of October 1861, the gallant " Stonewall brigade" was drawn up near its encampment at Centreville. All of the regiments except the 5th (which was on picket) were present. Drawn up in close columns, the officers and soldiers who had on the immortal 21st July won such glory under the guidance of their gallant general, stood with sad hearts and sorrowful countenances to bid him farewell; while thousands of troops from other portions of the army stood by in re- spectful silence. In a short time General Jackson, ac- companied by his staff, left his quarters and rode slowly towards the brigade. He was received by them in silence. Until this moment, his appearance had never failed to draw r from his men the most enthusiastic cheers. But 44 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL now not a sound was heard : a deep and painful silence reigned over every thing : every heart was full ; and this silence was more elequent than cheers could have been. As they reached the centre of the line the staff halted, and the general rode forward slowly to within a few paces of his men. Then pausing, he gazed for a moment wist- fully up and down the line. Beneath the calm, quiet ex- terior of the hero, there throbbed a warm and generous heart, and this parting filled it with inexpressible pain. After a silence of a few moments, General Jackson turned to his men and addressed them in the following brief, but expressive language : " Officers and soldiers of the first brigade: I am<oot here to make a speech, but simply to say farewell. I first met you at Harpers Ferry, in the commencement of this war, and I cannot take leave of you without giving expression to my admiration for your conduct from that day to this, whether on the march, 'the bivouac, the tented field, or the bloody plains of Manassaj, where you gained the well deserved reputation of having decided the fate of the battle. Throughout the broad extent of country over which you have marched, by your respect for the rights and propertyof citizens, you have shown that you were soldiers not only to defend, but able and willing both to defend and protect. You have already gained a brilliant and deservedly high reputation throughout the army and the whole Confederacy, and I trust, in the fu- ture, by your own deeds on the field, and by the assist- ance of the same kind Providence who has heretofore tavored our cause, you will ga i n more victories and add additional lustre to the reputation you now enjoy. You THOMAS J. JACKSON. 45 have already gained a proud position in the future history of this,* our second war of independence. I shall look with great anxiety to your future movements, and I trust whenever I shall hear of the first brigade on the field of battle, it will be of still nobler deeds achieved and a higher reputation won." Here he paused and glanced proudly around him. Then raising himself in his stirrups and throwing the bridle on his horse's neck, exclaimed in a voice of such deep feeling, that it thrilled through every heart in the brigade : "In the army of the Shenandoah you were the first brigade ; in the army of the Potomac you were the first brigade ; in the second corps of this army you are the first brigade ; you are the first brigade in the affections of your general, and I hope by your future deeds and bearing, you will be handed down to posterity as the first brigade in this, our second war of independence. Farewell !■" For a moment there was a pause, and then arose cheer after cheer, so wild and thrilling, that the very heavens rang with them. Unable to stand such affecting evi- dences of attachment, General Jackson hastily waved farewell to his men, and gathering his reins, rode rapidly away. * While the brigade entertained such a high opinion of General Jackson, his opinion of the heroes who composed it was equally exalted. I cannot illustrate this better than by relating the following incident : Soon after the succession of General Garnett to the command of the Stonewall brigade, he was ordered by General Jackson to execute some movement that required a long march and great rapidity. The troops were al- 46 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL ready much fatigued by their extraordinary marches, and knowing this, General Garnett remarked that ha feared it would be impossible to execute his orders. "General Garnett," said General Jackson, interrupt- ing him, " I once commanded the first brigade, and I never found anything impossible with them !" It is scarcely worth while to add, the movement was executed. General Jackson at once repaired to VV inchester to or- ganize his army and arrange the affairs of his department. In addition to the troops sent him from the army of the Potomac, (among which was his old brigade), the com- mand of General Loring was ordered from Western Vir- ginia to join him. General Jackson was not popular at- first with the troops of General Loring. They were devotedly at- tached to their commander, and were not willing that he should serve under General Jackson ; and it was not^until they had passed through the glorious campaign in the Valley, that they were perfectly satisfied with their new general. After that, their feelings seemed to undergo a complete change, and not even the troops of the old " Stonewall brigade" were more devoted to him than were " Loring's men." While engaged in preparing his forces for active ope-' rations, General Jackson, on the 17th December, de- stroyed Dam No. 5, on the Chesapeake and Ohio canal; thus disabling the canal and depriving the city of Wash- ington of the supplies which were sent to it by that route. About the close of the year 1861, General Jackson's army numbered ten thousand men. The enemy had col- THOMAS J. JACKSON. 47 Jected forces at the towns of Bath in Morgan county, and Romney in Hampshire county, from which points they committed numerous depredations upon the surrounding country. General Jackson resolved to drive them from these places and free the country from their presence. On the 1st of January 1862, he left Winchester with his forces and took the road to Romney. Having pro- ceeded a short distance, he wheeled to the right and marched towards Morgan county- The weather was very warm and the roads dusty on the first day ; the second day was very cold, and as the road was not in good order, the wagons were unable to keep up with the army, and the men were forced that night to lie out upon the ground without then* coverings or any thing to eat. On the morning of the third day, the wagons came up, and the troops were allowed a short time to cook provisions and partake of food. As soon as this was done, they set out again, suffering very much from the intense cold. The night was passed most uncomfortably, and on the next morning it began to snow rapidly. The troops suffered greatly from this, but pushed on cheerfully. That af- ternoon they came within four miles of Bath. Here the advanced brigade encountered a federal force, and after a sharp skirmish, forced it to retire into the town. The army encamped for the night just outside of Bath. Snow, rain and hail fell during the whole night, and the troops were forced to endure this without blankets or cov- erings of any kind; but they were so much fatigued by their long marches of the past few clays, that they sank down upon the wet ground and slept in spite of the hard- ships to which they were subjected. The roads had be- come almost impassable, owing to the sleet and ice, and 48 LIE UTES AST-GENERAL It was with great difficulty that the horses could stand upon their feet. It was late on Saturday morning (Jan- uary 5th) before the wagons came up and the men could procure food. As soon as the army had breakfasted, the order was given to advance towards Bath. The artillery, moving in advance, opened a heavy fire upon the yankces, and the infantry, hurrying forward to charge the breastworks which had been erected for the defence of the town, the enemy spiked their guns and re- treated towards the Potomac. A portion of the militia which accompanied General Jackson's army, were ordered to occupy a point in the rear of the town and thus cut off the enemy's retreat ; but before they could reach it, the federals passed it, and retreated across the river to Han- cock, in Maryland. They were pursued by the cavalry to the Potomac, where the confederate* fell into an am- bush and had to fall back. A piece of artillery was then ordered forward, and the woods in which the enemy lay concealed were shelled until night. At night the army fell back a short distance. Two regiments of infantry and a battery were ordered to re- main in the road all night to watch the enemy. They had no fires, and their sufferings were intense. Numbers, overcome by the cold, sank down in their, places, and had to be carried to the roar. The soles of the shoes of the men, in many instances, froze to the ground. Yet, not- withstanding all they endured, not a murmur of complaint was heard. On Sunday morning (January 6th) the army arrived opposite the town of Hancock, Maryland. Here the enemy bad collected a strong force, and presented a hos- tile appearance. General Jaehson sent Colonel Ashby, THOMAS J. JACKS05. 49 with a flag of truce, to the authorities of the town, giving them two hours to remove the women and children from the place, and notifying them of his intention to cannon- ade it and drive the enemy from it. At the expiration of the appointed time, General Jackson opened his fire upon the enemies batteries, to which they replied feebly. The fire continued rapidly for about an hour, and then ceased on both sides for the day. Not wishing to destroy the town, General Jackson directed his fire only at those portions occupied by the enemy. On the next morning the enemy, who had been rein* forced during the night, opened a furious fire upon the confederates, who did not reply to them, but busied them^ selves with removing the stores which the enemy had abandoned. While this was going on opposite Hancock, Colonel Rust, with two regiments and a battery, was ordered to proceed up the road and destroy the bridge over the Cacapon river. In his march to that point he was am- buscadedj but succeeded in driving the enemy out of their place of concealment, and then burnt the bridge and de- stroyed a considerable portion of the road. On Thursday morning (January 8th,) the army fell back from before Hancock. Having cleared this portion of the country, General Jackson resolved to drive the enemy out of Eomney, and immediately began his march to that place. The enemy had at Roinney a force of about twelve thousand men under Brigadier-general Kel- ly. Hearing that General Jackson was approaching, General Kelley evacuated the town on the 11th of Janu- ary, and retreated. General Jackson pressed on and took Tiossessiou of the place. 1 50 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL It was the original intention of General Kelly, "when lie was informed of General Jackson's approach, to defend Romnev, and he issued orders to that effect. But his troops became seized with a violent panic as soon as they heard of the advance of the terrible " Stonewall ;" and General Kelly, finding it impossible to make them fight, was forced to retreat. The federals abandoned a large amount of stores of various kinds, and left behind them all the official papers of their adjutant-general. From these papers much valu- able information was gained. Having driven the enemy before him at all points? General Jackson, leaving General Loring at Romney, returned to Winchester, (taking with him the Stonewall brigade), to guard his communications and watch the growing force of the enemy at Harpers Ferry. General Loring held Romney until the 6th of February, when he evacuated it under orders from General Jackson, and re- turned to Winchester. The terrible sufferings endufed by the troops in this expedition, caused many persons to regard the course pursued by General Jackson as unnecessary, and he was, for a time, the object of much censure. But the results of the expedition, and the facts which time has revealed, prove incontestibly that it was rendered necessary by the circumstances in which he was placed. The Baltimore and Ohio railroad was the great connecting link between the East and the West ; and the United States authori- ties were using it to transport troops to the necessary points. The destruction of a portion of this road, inclu- ding an important bridge, caused the enemy to adopt a more circuitous route through Pennsylvania, thereby put- THOMAS J. JACKSON. 51 ting them to serious inconvenience. Two large and im- portant counties were delivered for a time from the thral- dom of the enemy and the demoralizing influence of their armies ; rescued from their plundering and destructive acts of barbarity and villainy, and confidence restored in the power and willingness of the government to give pro- tection to its citizens. A severe loss was inflicted upon the enemy, a large amount of stores of various kinds captured, and the federal troops greatly demoralized, for the time, by the sudden and successful march of the con- federate army. It is true the troops of General Jackson suffered terri- bly — that the hospital reports showed the fearful conse- quences of the exposure and hardships which had been undergone ; but this could not be avoided : and a calm consideration of the matter will not fail to convince any one that the expedition was a necessity, and bravely and skilfully carried out, reflecting the highest credit upon the gallant commander. Nothing can better illustrate the perfect confidence re- posed in General Jackson by his troops, than the patient and cheerful manner with which they bore the most trying hardships to which they were exposed. Some of them were without shoes ; many of them but poorly clad ; and nearly all without overcoats, blankets or tents : and yet they never murmured. They bore everything with the greatest cheerfulness. It was enough for them to know that "Old Jack" thought the movement necessary. It must not be supposed that General Jackson fared much better than his men. He experienced all of the hard- ships to which they were subjected. Fatigue, cold, ex- posure and hunger he shared with them. Wrapping him- 52 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL self up in his blanket, be would throw himself down upon the ground and sleep ag soundly as if lying on a bed of down. All that he could do to alleviate the sufferings of the men, he did most gladly. Such heroism as was ex- hibited by both officers and men in this fearful march, has never been surpassed in any age of the world. Having returned to Winchester, General Jackson al- lowed his army a brief period for rest. Sickness and the process of reorganization diminished its strength con- siderably. It was General Jackson's original intention to hold both Roinney and Winchester, which positions would, he thought, enable him to defend the Valley of A r irginia. By establishing a telegraph between Iiomney and Win- chester, he would have the means of communicating promptly with General Loring at the former place. He was unwilling to allow the enemy to open the campaign, and wes anxious to assume offensive operations as soon as possible. He saw clearly the evils that would result from allowing the federal troops, then organizing for the invasion of the Valley, time to complete their arrange- ments, and he was anxious to strike at once. In a letter written on March 3d, he states his plan as follows : • ' ; My plan is to put on as bold a front as possible, and to use every means in my- power to prevent his advance, whilst our reorganization is going on. What I desire, is to hold the country, as far as practicable, until we are in a condition to advance ; and then, with God's blessing, let us make thorough work of it. * * * Banks, who commands about 35,000 men, has his headquarters at Charlestown ; Kelly, who has succeeded Lander, has probably 11,000 with his headquarters near Paw Paw. THOMAS J. JACKSON. bo Thus you sec two generals, whose united force is near 46,000, of troops already organized for three years or the war, opposed to our little force here. But I do not feel discouraged. Let me have what force you can. * * * * I am delighted to hear you say that Vir- ginia is resolved to concentrate all her resources, if ne- cessary, to the defence of herself. Now we may look for war in earnest. * * * * * * I have only to say this — that if this Valley is lost, Virginia is lost." Thus, it will be seen, he regarded a speedy opening of an aggressive campaign by his forces, as the only hope of success in the Valley. He saw clearly that if the fede- rals were allowed time to concentrate their forces and perfect their plans, his little army would be forced to abandon a large portion of the Valley and retire towards the mountains. The wisdom of his views must be evident to all reflecting minds. Unfortunately the war depart- ment did not agree with General Jackson, and its sanc- tion was refused to his plans and the desired reinforce- ments withheld. General Jackson was ordered to with- draw General Loring from Romney, to go into camp at Winchester and watch the enemy. Although exceedingly mortified by the rejection of his plans by the government, General Jackson, with the promptness of a true soldier, executed the orders of the war department and patiently awaited the movements of the enemy. The contrast between the views of the government and the plans of General Jackson is striking. He was al- ways in favor of prompt, vigorous, aggressive movements ; while the officials were content to await the development 54 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL of the enemy's plans, thus allowing him. all the time he desired for the perfection of his designs. It was General Jackson's rule to strike promptly and boldly wherever the enemy showed a vulnerable point. He did not wait for opportunities : he made them. His great idea in all of his operations was to "press right on," and drive the enemy before him. He was in favor of an advance upon Washington at the first battle of Manassas : he wanted to attack McClellan at Harrison's landing ; and at Fre- dericksburg urged that Burnside should be driven out of the town and into the Rappahannock, and the last order he ever gave was to "tell A. P Hill to press right on." If he failed in striking one blow, he saw but one course to pursue — to strike another, and to keep on striking until success crowned his efforts. He was always averse to any plan that gave the enemy a breathing spell. He was not a rash man. His plans were the results of mature and deliberate calculation. Every argument for or against a measure was carefully weighed, and nothing was undertaken hastily. No general ever paid greater attention to his communications, or took more pains to leave open a way of escape for his army in case of fail- ure. All of his measures were bold and characteristic of his strong and unconquerable will. He seemed to per- ceive intuitively the chief danger against which he had to contend, and instead of scattering his efforts upon a score of minor points, he bent all of them against the grand central object, and never paused until he overcame it. His strength of will was prodigious, and the stubborn tenacity with which he held his ground on all occasions, one of his most remarkable traits. The time had not arrived when the government was to THOMAS J. JACKSON. DO appreciate the true character of the man to whose care had been entrusted the fortunes of the Valley. He was thought by those in authority at Richmond a hairbrained, rash dreamer, who aimed at impossibilities and who should be watched and checked as much as possible. The au- thorities seemed to be continually afraid that Jackson would do something, or get into some trouble, and were not willing to sanction hia plan for the defence of the Valley. Orders were sent him to remain quiet at Win- chester, and the bold heart and fertile brain of the £reat soldier were forced for the time to throw aside all plans and wishes, and content themselves with awaiting the opening of the campaign by the enemy. On the 26 th of February, the federal army, some 35,000 strong, under Major-general Banks, crossed the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, and on the same evening the enemy's cavalry occupied Charlestown in Jefferson county. This column was destined for the invasion of the Valley and the annihilation of the little army under General Jackson. General Jackson's force had been greatly re- duced, and now numbered scarcely four thousand men. The army of the Potomac was falling back from Centre- viile to the Rappahannock and Eapidan, and General Jackson had no assurance of receiving assistance from any point. The column under General Banks was already nearly four times as large as his own, while the forces of General Kelly were within three days march of Banks, and the federal army in Western Virginia could, when- ever it was found necessary, move into the Valley to the support of the army there. The position of General Jftckson was very trying, and for awhile it seemed that his gallant little army would be overwhelmed by the im~ i>6 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL mense force that was moving against it. All over the country the hope was expressed that the government would order General Jackson east of the mountains, and thus prevent his being sacrificed in (what was then thought) the vain attempt to defend the Valley. But General Jackson himself was not so despondent. Believing that the just God in whom he trusted did not always give "the battle to the strong alone ; hut to the vigilant, the active, the brave," he calmly awaited the enemy's ad- vance. " Though the troops under my command are inade- quate to the defence of this district," he wrote in one of his letters, " yet we must look on the bright side, trusting that a kind Providence will continue to give its protec- tion to this fair portion of our Valley." Pausing a few -days at Charlestown, General Banks marched to Martinsburg, which place he occupied on the 3d of March. Having completed his arrangements, he advanced upon Winchester by the road leading from Martinsburg and also that from Charlestown. On the 11th of March these two columns were united at a point six miles from Winchester. About two o'clock in the afternoon of the bame day, the enemy attacked the picket of Ashby's cav- alry, four miles from the town. A small reinforcement was hurried to the assistance of the cavalry, but was forced to retire before the enemy. The whole confederate force was now thrown forward and held in readiness to engage the federals if they should continue to advance. This, however, General Banks declined doing, and nothing fur- ther occurred during the clay. Late in the day, General Jackson received an order from the government requiring THOMAS J. JACKSON. 57 him to evacuate Winchester and retire up the Valley. With great regret, he drew off his troops and retired into the town. He at once commenced to remove the stores, baggage and other public property. This was success- fully accomplished, and not one dollar's worth of the pub- lic property fell, into the hands of the enemy.* At last all was ready, and General Jackson, leaving Colonel Ashby to cover his retreat with the cavalry, slowly re- tired from the town. He bivouaced that night about four miles from Winchester. At eight o'clock the next morning, eight thousand fede- ral troops marched into Winchester and took possession of the town. Colonel Ashby remained, sitting on his horse, in the Main street, until the head of the enemy's column came within a short distance of him, and then rode out of the town and rejoined his command. In the after- noon a federal column under General Shields advanced towards Newtown. They were met and driven back to Winchester by Colonel Ashby's command. During the same day, General Jackson continued his retreat until he reached Cedar creek, on the Valley turnpike, sixteen miles from Winchester, and two from Strasburg. Shortly afterwards he continued to retire up the Valley until he reached Mount Jackson, a strong position in Shenandoah county. A detachment of the enemy followed General Jackson in his retreat up the Valley as far as Strasburg, (the main column, however, resting in the neighborhood of * It is a striking fact that General Jackson never abandoned to the enemy one thousand dollars worth of public property while he was in the army, and he was forced to destroy very little ; his measures for its preservation being, generally, successful. y 58 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL Winchester), the pursuing force being constantly held at a respectful distance by Ashby's cavalry and Chew's bat- tery, which constituted the confederate rear gauird. By the time he reached Mount Jackson, General Jack- son's forces were reduced to scarcely more than three thousand men. The little army now consisted of the fol- lowing greatly reduced commands : Ashby's cavalry and Chew's battery, (which had covered the retreat and were now lying between the enemy and Mount Jackson) ; Col. Eulkerson's brigade, (composed of the 23d and 37th Vir- ginia regiments and Skumaker's battery) ; Brigadier-gene- ral Garnett's brigade, (the old "Stonewall brigade," com- posed of the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 27 th and 33rd Virginia regi- ments, and McLaughlin's, Carpenter's and Waters' bat- teries) ; and Col. Burks' brigade, (composed of the 21st, 42nd and 48th Virginia regiments ; the 1st battalion of Virginia regulars and Marye's battery.) With this small force, which was undergoing the pro- cess of reorganization, General Jackson was expected to defend the Valley of Virginia against the' overwhelming hordes of the North. He did not shrink from the re- sponsibility, but put forth all his energies to perform the part assigned him. On the 21st of" March he received a dispatch from Col- onel Ashby, informing him that the enemy had evacuated Strasburg, and were retreating towards Winchester. At the same time he learned that General Sedgwick, with a force of 15,000 federal troops, had left the Valley and was marching eastward for the purpose of assailing Gen- eral Johnston, who was falling back from Centreville to- wards the Rappahannock. The main column of yankees left in the Valley, he was informed, was quite small, and TnOMAS J. JACKSON. 59 was advancing leisurely up the Valley, commanded by General Shields.. As soon as General Jackson received this information, his resolution was taken. He determined to wheel about, fall suddenly upon Shields' column and defeat it. He would thus accomplish two results, both of which would be exceedingly beneficial to the South. Pie would inflict a severe blow upon Shields, and force Sedgwick to return to the assistance of his friends in the Valley, thus re- lieving General Johnston of the danger that threatened him. General Jackson's troops had just reached Mount Jack- son, and were greatly fatigued by their long marches. But there was no rest in store for them then. As soon as he received information of the enemy's movements, General Jackson wheeled his forces about and marched rapidly down the Valley. He left his camp on Saturday the 22d of March, and bivouaced that night in the neigh- borhood of Btrasburg, having marched a distance of twenty-six miles that day. He moved so rapidly that only 2,700 of his men were able to keep up with him. On the same evening, Colonel Ashby's cavalry had a spirited engagement with the enemy, in which the federal commander, General Shields, was severely wounded. The next day, (Sunday 23d of March), General Jackson moved forward, and about ten o'clock arrived in front of Kerns town, a place about two miles south of Winchester. Early on the same morning, General Banks, who was still in Winchester, was informed by General Shields that the only confederate force in, h^fwtft '%»$'&. small, bddy of Ashby's cavalry, and that'*' he (General Shields) ap- prehended no danger of an attack. G.eneraLBanks left 60 LIBUTBNAHT-GENBRAL Winchester for Washington city, and gave himself no un- easiness with regard to Jackson, whom he imagined far away up the Valley. The federals occupied a strong position at Kernstown, and one which enabled them to see the arrival of General Jackson's forces. While on his march from Strasburg, General Jackson was informed by a party who had always given reliable information, that the federal force had been decreased to about 4,000 or 5,000 men, and this information, together with the fact that the enemy could observe his movements from their position, caused him to resolve to attack them at once. His troops were greatly fatigued, bat were in excellent spirits and eager fur battle. He left Colonel Ashby, together with Colonel Burks' brigade, to hold the Valley turnpike, and taking with him one piece of Carpenter's battery and Fulkerson's brigade, with Garnett's brigade following as a support, moved to the left in order to gain a position which would enable him to attack the federal right. He wished to, turn that flank of the enemy and drive him from his commanding position which it was not advisable to attack in front. The rest of Carpenter's guns find the batteries of Mc- Laughlin and Waters were hurried forward, and as soon as the desired point (a hill which commanded the federal position), was gained, the artillery opened the engage- ment. This movement had been partially concealed by the woods, and the enemy did not discover the real pur- pose of General Jack-on until the artillery opened their fire upon the right.* * God. Shields' report. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 61 The artillery having opened the battle, continued to advance, maintaining all the while a steady fire. The 27th regiment, supported by the 21st, was thrown forward to meet the infantry of the enemy who were moving to- wards the confederate left. These two regiments gal- lantly drove the federals back twice in a short space of time. The brigade of Colonel Fulkerson was advancing -on the left of the 27th regiment, when the enemy in large force were seen moving rapidly towards a stone wall just in his front. The possession of it would be a great ad- vantage to either pjrty, and Colonel Fulkerson advanced his command at a run. The enemy seeing this quickened his pace, and an exciting race for the possession of the wall ensued. The confederates were the first to reach it, and falling on their knees and sheltering themselves be- hind it, poured such withering volleys into the federal ranks, that they recoiled in disorder, leaving one of their regimental flags upon the field. They rallied, however, but only to be driven from their new position by Colonel Fulkerson's brigade. Shortly after the action opened, General Carnett ar- rived on the field with the remainder of the " Stonewall brigade," (the 2nd, 4th and 33rd Virginia regiments), and the 1st Virginia battalion, and moving rapidly to the front, joined in the engagement which now became general. The confederates, though opposed by largely superior forces, (who were continually receiving reinforcements of fresh troops), held their ground with stubborn courage. Several times the ammunition of certain portions of the troops gave out.- Cartridges were passed rapidly from 02 LIEUTEKANT-GFXK II AL man to man by those who had yet a supply of them, and the deficiency was thus remedied. The battle continued to rage with great fury. The troops were fighting against greatly superior forces of the enemy, but they would not give way. The reserves, (which it will be remembered had been left in the Valley turnpike), were yet to come u;?, and there was a strong probability that a victory might be won. Unfortunately General Garnett ordered his men to fail back, and this unlucky movement was quickly taken advantage of by the enemy, who threw forward their lines, turned Fulker- son's right, and forced him to fall back. As soon as General Jackson saw his lines waver, he placed his hand firmly upon the shoulder cf a little drum- mer boy who happened to be by him, and said in a quick, sharp tone : " Beat - the rally !" The enemy poured a withering fire towards the spot, but General Jackson stood unmoved, holding the boy by his shoulder until the signal was sounded and the lines were reformed. Eor a moment defeat seemed inevitable ; but General Jackson posted the 5th Virginia at a point from which it could check the enemy's advance. This it did until Col- onel Burks arrived on the field with the 42nd Virginia. The advantage gained by the enemy enabled them to press on, but before they could profit further by it, the approach of night forced them to pause. Thus the battle ended. General Jackson now drew off his force, and retiring to a point in the neighborhood of the field, passed the nio'lit there. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 63 Colonel Asliby had not been idle during the fight. By his skilful manoeuvering of his command, he protected the confederate rear and compelled the enemy to guard his front and left. The confederate force engaged in the battle of Kerns- town consisted of 2,742 infantry, 18 pieces of artiHery and 290 cavalry. Of these 80 were killed, about 200 wounded, and 300, (including a large number of those who were wounded), taken prisoners. A number of the wounded fell into the hands of the enemy. The dead were left on the field, and two guns and four caissons were abandoned on account of the lack of means to remove them. The citizens of Y\ 7 inchester buried the .dead, and nursed the wounded tenderly. The prisoners were car- ried to Baltimore, where they were kindly cared for by the Southern citizens. The enemy's forces in the battle numbered at least 8,000 men, with 3,000 additional troops in reserve. Their artillery was equal, if not superior to that of the confede- rates. Their loss has never been correctly, ascertained, but could hot have been less than 1,000 men. General Shields was in command of the enemy during the first part of the engagement, but was afterwards re- lieved by General Banks, who had been called back. The column of General Sedgwick, which had passed the Blue llidge at Snicker's gap, was recalled by the yankee commander. Though the battle of Kernstown did not end in a con- federate victory, it was far from being one for the enemy It is true, the enemy were left in possession of the field ; but the principal objects of General Jackson had been »14 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL achieved. He had inflicted a severe blow upon General Banks' army, had crippled it for awhile, (and time was all important to the South), and had caused the recall of General Sedgwick's column, thus preventing the success of the movement upon General Johnston's army. All this he had accomplished with an army of less than three ' thousand men. Surely, when these facts are taken into consideration, the enemy's claim to a brilliant victory must fall to the ground as an empty boast. General Shields in his report, which is a most shameful perversion of the truth, claims to have won a great vic- tory, but makes the following acknowledgment : " The enemy's sufferings have been terrible, and such as they have nowhere else endured since the beginning of this war ; and yet such were their gallantry and high state of discipline, that at no time during the battle or pur- suit did they give way to panic." On the morning of the 24th, General Jackson fell back slowly to Strasburg. The enemy made no attempt at pursuit, but contented themselves with watching him safely out of the neighborhood, then fell back to 'Win- chester, and blocked the road betiveenihat place and Stras- burg, to prevent General Jackson from advancing upon them again. From Strasburg the army fell back to Mount Jackson, the retreat being covered by Colonel Ashby's command. At last General Banks, having become satisfied that General Jackson had no idea of advancing upon him again, threw forward a column in pursuit. It was about this time General Jackson first exhibited, in a remarkable degree, tln.t wonderful rapidity of move- ment for which he afterwards became so celebrated. His THOMAS J. JACKSON. 65 army had just reached Mount Jackson after a weary march of forty-six miles, when he was informed that the enemy was advancing up the Valley. This was on the 22d of March. Determining to check their movements, he wheeled about, and by a forced march of more than forty miles, reached Kernstown the next day, struck a powerful blow at Banks' army, and within the next thirty- six hours was again at Mount Jackson.* General Jackson remained at Mount Jackson for nearly twenty days, and then abandoning that position, moved leisurely up the Valley towards Harrisonburg. Passing through that place he moved to the left, towards the Blue Ridge. On the 19th of April he crossed the south fork of the Shenandoah, and took position in Elk run valley, between the Shenandoah river and Swift run gap — a pass in the Blue Ridge. His position afforded him many advantages. It enabled him to march upon the enemy and dispute their advance towards Staunton and the Central railroad — to prevent their passing the Blue Ridge unmolested — or to move his force east of the mountains, should such a step be neces- sary. It having become evident to the government that Gen- eral Jackson must be reinforced in order to enable him to make a successful defence of the Valley, General * The surprising rapidity with which he moved, soon became an universal theme of conversation, and gave rise to many amusing in- cidents. Upon one occasion a wag remarked that "Stonewall Jack- son was a better leader than Moses ;'' and upon being asked his reason for this assertion, replied: t; It took Moses forty years to lead the Is- raelites through the wilderness, while Jackson would have 'double- quicked ' tbem through it in three dayc." QQ LIEUTENANT-GENEKAL Ewell's division was ordered from Gordonsviile to join him. On the 30th of April, General Ewell arrived west of the Blue Ridge, and within supporting distance of General Jackson. This reinforcement was opportune, but the confederate army was still numerically inferior to that of the enemy. In spite of this inferiority. General Jackson was now enabled to put into execution his. long cherished idea of an aggressive campaign. General Banks advanced cautiously as far as Harri- sonburg, and occupied the town. He threw forward a small portion of his forces towards Swift run gap, and constant skirmishing occurred between this body and the confederate outposts. Before proceeding to the narration of the events that followed the arrival of General Ewell, it may not be out of place to glance at a few facts, a knowledge of which will greatly facilitate the reader in his attempts to form a proper estimate of the Valley campaign, upon which we are about to enter. It will be remembered that the army of General John- ston, greatly reduced in strength, had evacuated the po- sition at Manassas and had fallen back to the Rappahan- nock. The federal army. of the Potomac had advanced upon Manassas, and finding the works deserted and their plans frustrated, had returned to the Potomac and em- barked in their transports for Fortress Monroe. The disappearance up the Valley of Jackson's forces had induced the federal authorities to believe that he had gone to unite his command with the main army under General Johnston, and they felt no fear of any danger in the direction of the Shenandoah. A portion of Banks' forces were to be sent in pursuit of Johnston, a nominal THOMAS J. JACKSON. 67 force to be left in the Valley, and the main body was to move to Manassas and serve as a covering force for Wash- ington city. This plan would enable the troops intended to cooperate with General McClellan to act with greater freedom. The movement had already begun when the sudden blow struck, at Kernstown startled the federal authorities with the knowledge that Jackson, who they imagined on his way to join General Johnston, had fallen like a thun- derbolt upon their forces in the Valley. Banks returned to Winchester, the column already east of the Blue Ridge was recalled, and a part of their plan rendered abortive. It was evident that Jackson intended remaining in the Valley, and it became necessary to modify their plan of operations. , It was now determined to retain Banks in the Valley, and order Fremont's army from Western Virginia to his assistance. These two columns, when united, were to fall upon Jackson, crush or drive him before them, and descend upon Richmond from the mountains- In the mean time McClellan was to move up the Pen- insula and lay siege to the city ; and McDowell had orders to advance towards Richmond from Fredericks- burg, and to extend his left wing until he formed a junc- tion with McClellan in the neighborhood of Hanover courthouse. The last of April saw all of these columns in motion. The dariger,which threatened the confederate capital was very great. A simple but hazardous plan for its de- fence was adopted by the Southern leaders. General Johnston's army, properly reinforced, was deemed suffi- cient for the protection of Richmond, but not a man could 68 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL be spared from it at that time to dispute the advance of Fremont and Banks or McDowell. Accordingly orders were sent to General Jackson to prevent the advance of the armies in the mountains, and to divert McDowell from his march to Richmond. As we have seen, General Jackson's command had been reinforced by General Ewell's division, and was now in a better condition to execute his orders. It was necessary for him to move without delay. His position was full of danger. In his front lay the army of General Banks, who had advanced up the Valley for the purpose of uniting his forces with the column of Gen- eral Fremont. Fremont was advancing towards Staunton, and his advanced guard under General Milroy had al- ready forced the small command of General Edward John- son, (who commanded the confederate force left to oppose Fremont), back to a point near Staunton, a portion of the federals having crossed the She'iandoah mountain, and encamped near the turnpike between Harrisonburg and the "Warm springs. Banks and Fremont might unite their forces at any moment, move upon Staunton, and not only capture that place, but throw themselves between the column of General Jackson and that of General Ed- ward Johnson, who was lying near Buffalo gap, and de- feat them in detail. The situation was critical, and the plan upon which General Jackson determined, was hold and vigorous. He resolved to leave General Ewell to watch Banks and hold him in check, while he would unite his own division with General Johnson's command, and thus strengthened, fall upon Milroy, defeat him and drive him back across the mountain,?., and then returning to the Valley with Gene- TIIOMAS J. JACKSON. 69 ral Johnson's brigade, would unite these forces with those of General Ewell and drive Banks to the Potomac. The undertaking was one of great danger, and required extraordinary rapidity and firmness in its execution, but it was admirably suited to such an army and such a com- mander. Being informed of General Fremont's approach, Gen- eral Banks, on the 4th of May, evacuated Harrisonburg, and fell back to a point lower down the Valley, from which he could communicate more readily with the western army. General Jackson had no time to lose. Ordering Gen- eral Ewell to occupy his (Jackson's) position in Elk run valley and prevent Banks from advancing, he moved rap- idly with his division towards Staunton, at which place he was joined by General Smith of the Virginia Military Institute with the corps of cadets, who, at his request, had come to join him in his defence of the upper Valley. On the 7th of May, General Jackson united his forces with those of General Edward Johnson, and hurried on after Milroy. General Johnson's brigade being in the advance, Jackson's division moved in the following order — General Taliaferro's, Colonel Campbell's and General Winder's brigades. The enemy's advance was encountered near the inter- section of the Staunton and Parkersburg and the Harri- sonburg and Warm springs turnpikes, and driven back with ease. .The federals retreated hastily, abandoning their baggage, and the. confederates halted for the night on the west side of the Shenandoah mountain. The next morning the army pushed forward, and was halted on Bull pasture mountain, near the village of Mc- Dowell in Highland county. 7-0 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL General Milroy having been reinforced by the com- mand of General Schenck of Fremont's army, and ex- pecting to receive additional troops, had halted at Mc- Dowell for the purpose of disputing the advance of the confederates. Just before entering the village, the turnpike by ■which the confederates were advancing, (the only direct ap- proach to the place), passes through a narrow mountain gorge. This was commanded by the federal artillery, and a passage of it was impossible. To the left of the turnpike is a detached spur of the Bull pasture mountain, known as Setlington's hill. From this eminence could be obtained a fine view of the town and the valley in which it was situated. General John- son, with an escort of thirty men, ascended this hill for the purpose of reconnoitering the enemy's position and strength. A strong column of federal infantry was dis- covered in the valley ; two regiments held a height on the right, and a battery supported by an infantry force was posted about a mile in front. The enemy sent a lot of skirmishers to dislodge the party on the hill, but they were driven back bj General Johnson's escort. General Jackson now determined to occupy Settling- ton's hill, and ordered General Johnson's whole command to secure it. The 52d Virginia, (the first which came up), was thrown out on the left to act as skirmishers. It was supported soon afterwards hj the 58th. The 12th Geor- gia held the centre, (the crest of the hill), and the 44th Virginia was posted on the right. Having received his reinforcements under Schenck, Milroy determined to dispute the possession of the hill, and to attempt to dislodge the confederates by a direct attack. THOMAS J. JACKS03ST. 71 The 52d Virginia had hardly reached the place ^signed it, when it was attacked by the enemy's skirmishers, who were, however, repulsed in handsome style. Milroy's forces now advanced rapidly towards the hill, and emerging from the woods opposite the confederate right, began an impetuous attack upon that flank. The confederates held their ground stubbornly, and were soon reinforced by the 25th and 31st Virginia regiments of General Johnson's command, who had just come up. The 31st Virginia had been stationed to guard the point at which the troops left the turnpike to climb the hill, and when they went into the action, this duty was performed by the 21st Virginia. The battle was now raging with great vigor along the whole line ; the enemy making desperate efforts to turn the confederate right. Seeing this, General Jackson sent the brigade of General Taliaferro to the assistance of General Johnson. The 23d and 37th Virginia were or- dered to the centre to the support of the 12th Georgia, which was manfully holding its ground, and the 10th Virginia was hurried to the right to reinforce the 52d, which had beaten back the federals from the left, and was gallantly assailing their right flank. The federals now threw a strong force upon the South- ern right, but were driven back by the brigade of Gene- ral Taliaferro and 12th Georgia. The 25th and 31st Virginia were ordered to secure an elevated piece of wood land on the right and rear, from which they could command the position of the enemy. Colonel Campbell's brigade now came up, and, with the 10th Virginia, was sent into the woods on the right to prevent any move- ment on the confederate right flank from that direction. rZ LIEUTENANT-GENERAL Bein«j driven back in their last attempt, the enemy abandoned the hill and retreated to McDowell. General Jackson did not use his artillery in this en- gagement. The nature of the ground would have pre- vented the removal of the guns in case of a defeat, and he was unwilling t% run the least risk of losing them. The federal artillery was posted on a hill in front of the confederate line and kept up a heavy fire previous to the attack of the infantry, but owing to the conformation of the ground, inflicted no damage upon the confederates. The battle began at half-past four o'clock in the after- noon and ended at half-past eight at night — having lasted four hours. General Edward Johnson was in command of the troops on the field, and near the close of the en- gagement received a severe wound in the ankle, which for some time deprived the country of his valuable ser- vicer. The federal force numbered about 8,000 men. Gene- ral Jackson's was a little less. The confederates lost 71 killed and 390 wounded — total 461. The enemy's loss was about 1,000 killed, wounded and prisoners. During the night the federals left McDowell and re- treated towards Pendleton county. The next morning General Jackson, (leaving the pris- oners and captured articles in charge of the corps of cadets under Lieutenant-colonel Preston, and a small body of cavalry), started in pursuit of Miiroy's defeated forces. Parties were sent to obstruct the North river, Dry river and Brock's gaps to prevent Banks from send- ing assistance to Milroy. The enemy halted a few miles beyond Franklin in Pen- dleton county, and commenced to fortify their position. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 73 Seeing this, and knowing that Milroy would soon receive reinforcements from Fremont, and feeling assured that he had very effectually put an end to all probability of a junction between Milroy and Banks, General Jackson returned to McDowell, which place he reached on the 14th of May. Before leaving Franklin, General Jackson, on the 12th of May addressed his troops in a few terse and pointed remarks, thanking them for th«e courage, endurance and other high soldierly qualities they had displayed at the battle of McDowell, and on the march, and appointed 10 o'clock of that day "as an occasion of prayer and thanks- giving throughout the army,. for the victory which fol- lowed that bloody engagement." A Avriter who was present, thus describes the solemn scene : " There, in the beautiful little valley of the South branch, with the blue and towering mountains covered with the verdure of spring, the green sward smiling a welcome to the season of flowers, and the bright sun, un- clouded, lending a genial refreshing warmth, that army, equipped for the stern conflict of war, bent in humble praise and thanksgiving to the God of battles for the success vouchsafed to our arms in the recent sanguinary encounter of the tw'o armies. While this solemn cere- mony was progressing in every regiment, the minds of the soldiery drawn off from the bayonet and the sabre, the enemy's artillery was occasionally belching forth its leaden death, yet ail unmoved stood that worshipping army, acknowledging the supremacy of the will of Him who controls the destinies of men and nations, and choses the weaker things of earth to confound the mighty." 10 74 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL The country was painfully excited with regard to the threatening aspect of affairs west of the mountains, and anxious eyes were turned towards the gallant army of the Valley, striving in vain to pierce the gloom that seemed to enshroud it. The first gleam of light that flashed over the distant hills, was the news of the victory at McDowell, which was announced by General Jackson in the following graceful and characteristic dispatch: Valley District, May 9, '61. \ Via Staunton, May 10. J To General S. Cooper : God blessed our arms with victory at McDowell, yeterday. T. J. Jackson, Major-general. The first part of General Jackson's plan had succeeded admirably. Fremont's advance had been driven back, and the danger of a junction between this force and Banks' army averted. God had blessed every effort with success, and now nothing remained but to drive Banks out of the Valley. That officer, during the movement of General Jackson west of the Shenandoah mountain, had fallen back to Strasburg, which place he was fortifying. He had com- mitted the folly of dividing his forces, a portion of them being stationed at Front Koyal in Warren county. Gen- eral Shields' division (about 8,000 men), had been sent east of the mountains to join General McDowell at Fre- dericksburg. On the 15th of May, General Jackson left the village of McDowell, taking with him General Johnson's forces, and crossing the Shenandoah mountain, encamped at night near the Lebanon white sulphur springs. Here the troops were allowed a brief period of rest after their THOMAS J. JACKSON. 75 long and fatiguing marches, and the fast recommended by the president's proclamation occurring in the interval, was duly observed. On the 17th of May the army marched towards Harrisonburg. General Swell, whose orders were to watch Banks, had left Elk run valley, and had followed him down the Val- ley of Virginia as far as New Market, and General Jack- son hurrying on through Harrisonburg, formed a junction with Ewell's division near New Market. Having united his entire command, General Jackson began in earnest his movement against Banks. He de- termined to fall upon the federal .fo' - at Front Royal and capture it, hoping to get into Bank . 'var, or compel him to leave his works at Strasburg and i ; : back towards Winchester. In order to accomplish this, he left New Market and marched to Luray in Page county, leaving Ashby (who had been made a brigadier-general) to hold his position until the next morning, (in order that the movement might be as secret as possible), and then to rejoin the array, taking care, however, to leave behind a force sufficient to prevent any information of the move- ment reaching General Banks. General Jackson's army now consisted of his own di- vision, (the 1st, or " Stonewall brigade," under General Winder ; the 2nd brigade under Colonel Campbell ; the 3rd brigade under Colonel Fulkerson) ; the troops of General Edward Johnson ; General Ewell's division, (the brigades of Generals Elzey, Trimble and Taylor) ; the Maryland line under Brigadier-general George H. Stew- art, (the 1st Maryland regiment and Brockenborough's battery) ; Ashby's cavalry ; and the 2nd and 6th Vir- ginia cavalry under Colonel Flournoy. 7G LIEUTENANT-GENERAL On the 22d of May, General Jackson moved from Lu- ray towards Front Royal. Ewell led the advance and halted at night about ten miles from Front Royal. At daybreak on the morning of Friday the 23d of May, Gen- eral Jackson resumed his march. About a mile and a half from Front Royal, he encountered the federal pick- ets. These were driven in and followed rapidly try the advance of General Ewell, which consisted of the 1st Ma- ryland regiment supported by "Wheat's Louisiana bat- talion, followed by Taylor's brigade as a reserve. The federals made a brisk fight, but were driven rapidly through the town, losing a number of prisoners. The enemy halted a short distance beyond the town, and occupied a commanding ridge to the right of the turnpike, opening with their rifled cannon upon the ad- vancing columns of the confederates. A battery was moved forward to drive them from their position, the 6th Louisiana sent through the woods to turn their flank, and the 1st Maryland and Wheat's bat- talion advanced upon them from the front. The enemy offered but a feeble resistance to these last named forces, and as soon as their skirmishers were driven in, fell back across both forks of the Shenandoah river, and endea- vored to burn the bridge over the North fork. The con- federates, following rapidly, drove them from the bridge, extinguished the flames and crossed the river in pursuit. The enemy hurried on in the direction of Winchester — the confederates following with enthusiasm. General Ashby and Colonel Flournoy had been sent across the South fork of the river above the federal posi- tion, for the purpose of destroying railroad and telegraphic communication between Strasburg and Front Royal. Col- THOMAS J. JACKSON. 77 onel Flournoy executed his orders, and crossing the North fork, came up with a force of the enemy consisting of two companies of cavalry, two pieces of artillery and the 1st (U. S.) Maryland regiment and two companies of Penn- sylvania infantry. Colonel Flournoy had with him four companies of the 6th Virginia cavalry. A spirited at- tack was made upon the federals, who were driven back, but were soon rallied. A second attack was made upon them, and this resulted in the surrender of their infantry, the dispersion of their cavalry and the capture of their artillery. This force had been stationed near Cedarsville to check the confederate pursuit. General Ashby, moving towards the west, encountered a force of the enemy strongly posted at Buckton. He at- tacked and routed them. The army pushed on in pursuit for a short distance, but halted at dark. Seven hundred prisoners, two ten-pounder rifled Par- rott guns and a large amount of commissary and quar- termaster stores were captured during the day. General Jackson had turned the enemy's flank, and could now ad- vance towards the Potomac. A new precaution had to be taken now. If General Banks should determine to leave Strasburg, he had two routes of escape before him — one to the Potomac through Winchester ; the other through Front Royal to the neigh- borhood of Manassas and Washington city. In order to cut him off, it was necessary to watch both routes. Ac- cordingly General Jackson divided his forces. Retaining with himself the main body of the army, he moved to- wards Middletown, thirteen miles south of Winchester, at which point he wished to strike the Valley turnpike. Y8 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL This place was only five miles north of Strasburg, and should General Banks determine to remain in his works, it would be very easy to advance upon him. On the morning of the 24th, General Jackson moved towards Middletown, Ashley's cavalry being in the ad- vance. General Ewell was ordered to move towards Winchester. Brigadier-general George H. Stewart had been placed temporarily in command of the 2nd and 6th Virginia cavalry, and had been sent to Newtown, a point about nine miles south of Winchester, to observe the enemy and report his movements. Pie captured some prisoners, a number of wagons and ambulances with medi- cal stores and instruments. General Banks, as soon as he heard of the capture of Front Royal, determined to abandon Strasburg and re- treat to Winchester ; or as he says in his official report, " to enter the lists with the enemy (confederates) in a race or a battle — as he should choose — for the possession of Winchester." Judging by his movements, he must have concluded that he was "to enter the lists in a race ;" for he fell back from Strasburg with the greatest rapidity, abandoning on his march everything that was calculated to impede his army. Having been informed by General Stewart, that Banks was retreating from Strasburg, General Jackson pressed on. When he reached Middletown he found a dense mass of yankee cavalry hurrying along the Valley turn- pike, almost blocking up the road. Poague's and Chew's guns and General Taylor's infantry made a spirited at- tack upon these and soon put them to flight, having in- flicted upon them a heavy loss and captured many pris- oners. The enemy's column was pierced. A part re- THOMAS J. JACKSON. T9 treated towards Winchester. A lot of wagons was seen in the distance going north, and Ashby's cavalry was sent in pursuit. They had hardly started, -when the federal artillery, which had been cut off, opened upon General Jackson's command, seemingly with the intention to break through his line and secure its retreat to Winchester. Taylor's brigade was hurled upon this portion of the federal column, and soon it was flying towards Strasburg. This part of Banks' command afterwards crossed the mountains and retreated to the Potomac. General Jackson was now satisfied that the main col- umn of Banks' army had passed on towards Winchester, and he hurried on in pursuit. The enemy exhibited evidenaes of great panic and confusion. Wagons were upset in the road and abandoned or burned; clothing, arms, ammunition, everything that could impede their flight was thrown away by the men ; and prisoners were taken at almost every hundred yards. Everything was favorable to the belief that Banks' command was too greatly demoralized to make a successful resistance to the advance of the confederates. Still, hVwas necessary to continue the pursuit with unremitting vigor, as the enemy might be rallied if allowed time. Unfortunately the cavalry and infantry sent forward with General Ashby, tempted by the rich booty which surrounded them, abandoned the pursuit and turned their attention to plundering. General Ashby sought by every means in his power to make his men return to their duty, but in vain. They were deaf to all commands and ap- peals, and the artillery which had continued the pursuit as far as Newtown, was left without any support. A delay of two hours en:;ued. 80 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL Profiting by the temporary cessation of the 'pursuit, the federals rallied and opened on the confederate batte- ries with four pieces of artillery, •which were posted on the northern edge of the town. Poague's two rifled guns replied with spirit to this fire. Matters stood thus when General Jackson arrived. About dark the federals aban- doned Newtown and fled towards Winchester. General Jackson pressed on in pursuit, meeting on all sides large numbers of wagons loaded with stores, abandoned, and in some cases fired by the enemy. Repeatedly during this night march the confederates were fired upon by am- buscaded parties of the enemy, and skirmishing continued throughout the night. General Jackson regarded it as of the highest impor- tance to seize before daylight, the hills around Winches- ter, and in spite of the darkness and many difficulties with which he met, continued to press forward his advance until nearly morning. The other troops came up more leisurely. General Ewell had moved forward by the road from Front Royal to Winchester, and had taken position about three miles from the latter place, 'with his pickets a mile in advance of his main column. His force consisted of Trimble's brigade, the 1st Maryland regiment, the cavalry under General Stewart, (which had been sent to him from Newtown), and Brockenborough s and Courtney's batte- ries. About daybreak General Jackson moved forward upon Winchester. Finding that the enemy's skirmishers were m possession of the hill on the southwest, which over- looked the town, he ordered General Winder to dislodge them and secure the hill. This order was executed in handsome style by the "Stonewall brigade." THOMAS J. JACKSON. 81 Two Parrott guns, (of the Bockbri(l?;e artillery), and Carpenter's and Cutshaw's batteries were posted on the hill, and opened on a federal battery in front, which was keeping up an effective fire upon the confederates. About this time a federal battery and a detachment of sharp- shooters began a heavy fire from the left ; the position of the battery enabling it to enfilade the confederate artil- lery. The Parrott guns were turned to the left, and the sharpshooters were forced to protect themselves behind a neighboring stone wall. The battery, however, continued to pour in a heavy fire upon Poague, who changed his position to the left and rear, and opened effectively upon the federal battery on the left, occasionally firing solid shot at the stone wall, from behind which the yankee sharpshooters were keeping up a destructive fusilade upon the southern troops. Carpenter and Cutshaw had silenced the federal battery in front. During the artillery engagement, General Banks moved his infantry to the left, clearly intimating that he meant to occupy the northern portion of the hill. General Jackson ordered General Taylor to^heck this.. Taylor at once began to ascend the hill, passing in General Winder's rear, and climbing the steep, attacked the enemy with impetuosity and drove him down the hill and across the plain below. The " Stonewall brigade"' was now thrown forward, and the enemy recoiling before this mag- nificent charge, fled towards Winchester. General Elzey, whose brigade had been held in reserve, was now ordered forward, in pursuit. General Ewell had attacked the enemy with vigor on the right, and had succeeded in outflanking them and driving them from that portion of the hill. He then 11 82 LIEUTKNANT-GENBEAL moved rapidly towards the eastern side of Winchester, and approached just as Taylor's brigade was advancing on the opposite side. There was now a probability of the federal army being entirely surrounded, as both of their flanks had been turned, and to avoid this they retreated rapidly into Winchester. The confederates hurried on in pursuit. A feeble re- sistance was made in the streets of the town, but the enemy were driven through it. In passing through Win- chester the troops were enthusiastically greeted by the citizens. One of the participants thus describes the scene : " Many were killed in the streets, and a remarkable feature of the day was that when the tide of battle rolled towards the town, the glorious women of Winchester turned out to give relief to our wounded and exhausted soldiers, and so regardless were they of danger, that they were not deterred from their pious duty by the shot and shell which fell around them. In the streets our men had to advance a guard to clear the women out of the way for our platoons toWeliver their fire. This, I am assured. Was literally the case in more instances than one." While passing through Winchester, the enemy made an ineffectual attempt to burn the town. They had pre- served up to this time a certain degree of order in their movements, but after passing beyond the town, a few shots from the confederate artillery threw them into the wildest confusion. The troops of General Jackson were greatly exhausted by their long marches, but his order was to "press right on to the Potomac." It was impossible to do this. The cavalry had not come up, and the infantry were incapable THOMAS J. JACKSON. 83 of keeping up with the enemy, and after a pursuit of two hours with the infantry and artillery, General Jackson was forced to order a halt. Ashby's cavalry could not be found, and an order was sent to Brigadier-general George H. Stewart who had under his command the 2nd and 6th Virginia cavalry, to move as rapidly as possible and join General Jackson " on the Martinsburg turnpike, and carry on the pursuit of the enemy with vigor." General Stewart replied that "he was under the command of General Ewell, and the order must come through him." After a slight delay, occasioned by this, General Stewart joined General Jackson with his cavalry and continued the pursuit, capturing many prisoners. On his march, General Stewart was joined by General Ashby and his cavalry, who had been dejayed hj attempt- ing to cut off a part of the federal force. The cavalry pursuit was continued to Martinsburg, where the troops captured a large amount of army stores. Banks was, by this time, out of danger, having crossed the Potomac and retreated into Maryland. His forces had retreated in great demoralization after their final rout at Winchester, and if. the cavalry of General Jack- son had conducted the pursuit with the ability and energy which he had the right to expect of them, but few of the fugitives would have succeeded in escaping across the Po- tomac. On the 26th of May, the army held a solemn thanks- giving to God for the success that had crowned their efforts, andV implored his favor in their future career. This day and the next were allowed to the army as a period of rest after their extraordinary exertions. Early on the morning of the 28th, General Winder 84 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL "was ordered to move towards the Potomac, and at once set out in the direction of Charlestown, taking with him the " Stonewall brigade" and Carpenter's and Poague's batteries. Hearing that the enemy were in strong force at Charlestown, he sent information of this fact to Gen- eral Jackson, who directed General Ewell to go to his assistance with reinforcements. General Winder con- tinued to move forward, and upon arriving at the edge of the woods, a little less than a mile from Charlestown, dis- covered the federals, apparently about fifteen hundred strong, in line of battle. He moved on for the purpose of attacking them. As his command came in sight, the federals opened on it with two pieces of artillery. Carpenter's battery was thrown forward, and in twenty minutes forced, the fede- rals to retreat. They fled in great confusion, throwing aside their arms and equipments of all kinds. They were pursued to Ilalltown. Seeing a force of the enemy in position on Bolivar heights, General Winder returned to Charlestown. On the next day the army took position near Halltown, and the 2nd Virginia was sent to occupy the heights in Loudoun county, on the opposite side of the Shenandoah river, to drive the enemy out of Harpers Ferry and force them across the Potomac. Leaving the army at this point, let us glance at a few facts connected with the campaign: The expedition had been a complete success. In the brief period of twenty-two days, General Jackson had passed the mountains, defeated Milroy and driven him into Western Virginia ; then recrossing the mountains and hurrying down the Valley, had fallen upon Banks THOMAS J. JACKSOIT. 85 and driven him across the Potomac. In order to accom- plish this, the army had marched more than two hundred and fifty miles, had fought three battles and a number of minor engagements. They had sustained, in the opera- tions in the Valley, a loss of 68 killed and 329 wounded and 3 missing ; making a total of 400 men. The enemy lost about 800 men killed and wounded, and 2,300 pris- oners. In addition to these, 700 wounded men were found in the hospitals of "Winchester, and 50 in Stras- burg, making the total number captured 3,050, and hi3 entire loss about 3,850. The sick and wounded were paroled in the hospitals, and the surgeons (eight .in num- ber)' who were taken with them, were unconditionally re- leased, after being held one day as prisoners of Avar. The army captured at Front Royal, Winchester, Mar- tinsburg and Charlestown, an exceedingly large amount of stores and other public property. A part of this was' saved, but a large portion of it was burnt for lack of means to remove it. Much of it was also issued to the citizens. Two large hospitals, furnished with every ne- cessary article, were found in Winchester, and left un- touched, with all their supplies for the use of the sick and wounded of the enemy. A large warehouse in Win- chester filled with medical stores was captured, and its contents saved. More than 100 head of cattle, 4'00 wagons loaded, 34,000 pounds of bacon, large quantities of flour, sugar, coffee, army bread, cheese, and 600 sacks of salt, were accounted for by the proper officers, but large quantities of these stores were taken by the troops for their own use, and not accounted for. Sutlers stores, valued at $25,000 were given to the troops, there being no means of removing them. One hundred and twenty- 88 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL five thousand, one hundred and eighty-five dollars worth of quartermaster stores were brought off and immense quantities destroyed ; and 9,354 small arms and 2 rifled cannon, constituted a part of the .ordnance stores which were brought away. General Jackson announced his victory in the follow- ing dispatch: Winchester, May 26th. To GeneralS. Cooper: During the last three days God has blessed our arms with bril- liant success. On Friday the federals at Front Royal were routed, and one section of artillery in addition to many prisoners, captured. On Saturday, Bank's main column, while retreating from Strasburg to Winchester, was pierced — the rear part retreating towards Stras- burg. On Sunday the other part was routed at this place. At last accounts Brigadier-general George H. Stewart was pressing them with cavalry and artillery, and capturing many. A large amount of ord- nance, medical and other stores have fallen into our hands. T. J. Jackson, Major-general. The defeat of General Banks' army and its flight into Maryland, together with the approach of General Jack- son to the Potomac, threw the government and people of the United States into a fever of excitement. The wild- est rumors prevailed every where that General Jackson was advancing upon Washington and that the city was in great danger. The federal secretary of war telegraphed to the governor of Massachusetts : " Send all the troops forward that you can immediately. Banks completely routed. * * * Intelligence from various quarters leave no doubt that the enemy in great force are advancing upon Washington. You will please organize and forward immediately all the volunteer and militia force in vour state." A feeling of perfect terror prevailed every where. THOMAS J. JACKSOff. 87 Men wore long and anxious faces ; and the questions— "Where is Jackson?" "Has he taken Washington?" were upon every tongue. It will be remembered that a part of the federal plan of operations against Richmond, was the advance of Gene- ral McDowell from Fredericksburg towards that city, and that one of the chief objects of General Jackson's move- ment was to divert him from that march. General Jackson hoped, when the campaign opened, that the events would take such a turn as to enable him to cross the Potomac and attack Washington city. The situation of affairs after the defeat of Banks, did not admit of any attempt to put this movement into execution. After General Jackson retired up the Valley to the neighborhood of Swift run gap, General Banks fell back to Strasburg, and sent General Shields' division to rein- force General McDowell at Fredericksburg, who was pre- paring, to begin his march upon Richmond. On the 17th of May the federal secretary of war tele- graphed General McDowell to begin his march as soon a3 Shields' division reached him. On the same day he wrote to General McClellan, then in front of Richmond, and clamoring for reinforcements, that McDowell had been ordered to join him, and would move in a few days " with between thirty-five and forty thousand men." Had this column been allowed to unite with McClellan, the condition of Richmond would have been far more critical. General McDowell in a letter to General Mc- Clellan, informed him that he would move about the 24th of May. The movement was never executed. All this while Jackson was marching rapidly down the Valley for the 88 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL purpose of preventing it. On the 28rd, the day before McDowell was to have begun his march, the blow was struck at Front Royal, and the next day Winchester fell, and the broken fragments of the federal army were driven across the Potomac. The authorities at Washington had been suspicious of Jackson's intentions. Now they were seriously alarmed. It was resolved to abandon, or at least to postpone McDow- ell's movement upon Richmond, in order to ensure the safety of Washington city. Fremont, it will be remem- bered, had been ordered to move from Western Virginia to help Banks, and instructions were now sent to him to hasten his movements and fall upon Jackson's rear. On the 24th of. May, Lincoln sent the following order to General McDowell : " General Fremont has been ordered by telegraph to move from Franklin on Harrisonburg, to relieve General Banks and capture or destroy Jackson's or Ewell's forces. You are instructed, laying aside for the present the move- ment on Richmond, to put twenty thousand men in motion at once for the Shenandoah, moving on the line or in ad- vance of the Manassas gap railroad. Your object will be to capture the forces of Jackson and Ewell, either in cooperation with General Fremont, or in case a want of supplies or transportation interferes with his movement, . it is believed that the force with which you move will be sufficient to accomplish the object alone. The informa- tion thus received here makes it probable that if the enemy operate actively against Banks, you will not be able to count upon much assistance from him, but may even have to release him. Reports received this moment, are that Banks is fighting with Ewell eight miles from Winchester." THOMAS J. JACKSON. 89 On the same day General McDowell wrote to the sec- retary of -war : " The president's order has been received; is in pro- cess of execution. This is a crushing blow to us." On the same day he informed the president that Shields' division had been sent off. Thus, it will be seen, the remaining objects of the cam- paign had been successfully accomplished. McDowell had been prevented from joining McClellan. But this success, while it diminished the peril that hung over Richmond, only increased the danger that threatened General Jackson. He was now menaced by two armies, which were advancing rapidly upon him. Fremont was advancing upon him from Roniney, and Shields was marching from Fredericksburg. These forces were seek- ing to form a junction in his rear and cut off his retreat up the ~S alley. It was necessary to prevent this. On the 30th of May, he returned to Winchester with all his forces except the " Stonewall brigade" and the cavalry. General Winder was ordered to withdraw the 2nd Virginia from Loudoun heights, and then to rejoin the main body of the army with all speed. The cavalry were to accompany him. Before Winchester was reached, Front Royal had been captured by the federal cavalry, having been abandoned by the force left by General Jackson to hold it, (the 12th Georgia and 2 guns of Rice's battery under Colonel Con- nor. ) A party of federal prisoners and some of the con- federate troops fell into the hands of the enemy. About §300,000 worth of quartermaster and commissary stores captured there by General Jackson, were burnt to pre- vent their capture bv the enemy. " 12 90 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL On the 31st of May, General Jackson left Winchester with his entire command, except the troops left with General Winder. He was informed that Fremont was approaching by way of Wardensville, endeavoring to reach Strasburg before him. The march of the two armies to Strasburg was literally a race between them. General Jackson's line, including his wagons and pris- oners, was nearly twelve miles long. Strasburg was reached that night ; the army having marched fifty miles since about noon of the 80th, encum- bered with a large park of artillery, a train of fifteen hundred wagons, and 2,300 prisoners. The men were far from being fresh, as their recent marches had greatly fatigued them, but they pushed On with cheerfulness, satisfied with the knowledge that " Old Jack" thought it necessary to move with speed. This wonderful march, together with their other movements, gained for them the title of " Jackson's foot cavalry." Having reached Strasburg, it was necessary for Gene- ral Jackson to hold it until General Winder could reach him ; and in order to observe the movements of Fremont, a small force was thrown out in the direction of Wardens- ville. The next morning, June 1st, this force was at- tacked by Fremont's advance. General Ewell was sent with his division to check the federal army. A spirited engagement ensued, which resulted in the federal advance falling back a short distance. Late in the day General Winder arrived, his troops having marched with great rapidity. Having united his forces once more, General Jackson on the evening of the 1st of June left Strasburg, and resumed his retreat up the Valley. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 91 The confederate army had not gotten far from Stras- burg, before their departure was discovered by the ad- vanced forces of Fremont, who pushed on in pursuit. During the night the federal cavalry attacked Jackson's rear guard, but were driven back with the loss of several prisoners. From these prisoners, General Jackson learned that Shields had been at Front Royal for two days without making any effort to effect a junction with Fremont, and -was then moving southwards. He at once supposed that Shields was marching on Luray for the purpose of moving from there to New Market, and intercepting his retreat. To prevent this, he had the White house and Columbia bridges over the South fork of the Shenandoah de- stroyed. On the 2nd of June, Jackson's rear guard was attacked by the federal advance. At first the cavalry and artillery of the confederates were thrown into confusion by the fire of the federal artillery. The yankee cavalry pressed forward to charge them before they recovered from their confusion, but were repulsed by a handful of stragglers, which had been collected by General Ashby to meet this danger. The 6th and 2nd Virginia cavalry were placed under the command of General Ashby, who was now given the charge of covering the retreat — a service which he per- formed with great skill and gallantry. On the 3rd of June the army reached Mount Jackson. After all the troops had crossed the bridge over the Shen- andoah, near the place, General Ashby was ordered to destroy it. He succeeded in doing so, incurring great risk in the execution of his orders, and losing his favorite horse. 92 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL The army reached Harrisonburg early on the 5th of June. Leaving the town behind him, General Jackson wheeled to the left and marched to Port Republic. On the 6th of June, the enemy made a vigorous dash upon the confederate rear guard, at a point between Har- risonburg and Port Republic. General Ashby called for reinforcements of infantry, which were sent him. A severe skirmish ensued, and resulted in the repulse of the enemy, with a heavy loss in killed, wounded and prisoners. The confederates lost 17 killed, 50 wounded and 3 missing. In this skirmish, General Ashby was killed. He fell while leading a charge upon the enemy, and died instantly. He was a great loss to the South, but especially to Gene- ral Jackson's army.* General Jackson's army had now reached Port Re- public. Fremont's main column had arrived in the neigh- borhood of Harrisonburg, and Shields was at Conrad's store, about fifteen miles distant. General Jackson was nearly equi-distant from both of these columns. The destruction of the bridge over the South fork of the Shenandoah, at Conrad's store, having prevented Shields from passing the river at that point and effecting a junction with Fremont, he moved rapidly towards Port * la his official report, General Jackson has the following : " An official report is not an appropriate place for more than a pas- sing notice of the distinguished dead; but the close relation which General Ashby bore to my command for most of the previous twelve months, will justify me in saying that as a partisan officer, I never knew his superior. His daring was proverbial; his powers of endu- rance almost incredible; his tone of character heroic, and his saga- city almost jntuitive in divining the purposes and movements of the enemy." THOMAS J. JACKgON. 93 Republic, resolving to cross the river there and fall upon Jackson. The town of Port Republic is situatud on a strip of land formed by the junction of the North and South rivers, which here empty into the South fork of the Shen- andoah. The North river, the larger and deeper of the tributaries, was crossed by a wooden bridge, over which lay the road leading from Harrisonburg. The South river could be forded. General Jackson resolved to prevent the junction of the forces of Shields and Fremont, and to offer them bat- tle separately. In order to carry out this plan, he divi- ded his forces. General Ewell was posted about four miles distant on the road leading to Harrisonburg, while the remainder of the army was encamped on some high ground beyond the village, about a mile from the river. Ewell was to check Fremont, while Jackson would attend to Shields. On the morning of the 8th of June, the scouts who had been sent out the night before to gather information respecting Shields' movements, came in and reported that the enemy would be in sight in a short time. Taliaferro's and Winder's brigades were ordered to take positions immediately north of the bridge. The yankee cavalry and artillery now came in sight, and after firing several shots at the bridge, crossed South river, and dashing into the village, planted one of their pieces at the southern end of the bridge. General Jackson had crossed the river, and was in Port Republic when the enemy occupied it. Upon re- turning to the bridge, be found the enemy in possession of the southern end of it, with a piece of artillery situa- i:>4 LIEUTENANT-GENEBAL ted so as to sweep it. Nothing daunted by this unpleas- ant discovery, General Jackson rode up boldly to the officer in charge of the gun, and demanded sternly : " Who told you to place this gun herd, sir ! Remove it and place it on yonder hill !" As he spoke, he pointed to an eminence some distance off. The officer bowed, limbered up his piece and pre- pared to move' away. When he had started, General Jackson put spurs to his horse and galloped across the bridge. The federal officer now saw the trick, and hastily un- limbering his gun, sent a shower of grape after General Jackson, which, however, passed harmlessly over his head. Upon reaching his command, General Jackson sent General Taliaferro's brigade to charge the piece and oc- cupy the town. Poague's battery was opened on this gun, which was subsequently captured by the 37th Vir- ginia. General Taliaferro then crossed his brigade, drove out the federal cavalry and occupied the town. A second piece of artillery was then taken from the federals. A column of infantry now made its appearance on the road by which the cavalry had advanced, but was soon driven back by the fire of the confederate batteries. It was* pursued for a mile by the Southern artillery on the op- posite bank, and forced to seek shelter in the woods. General Jackson held his position all day, expecting Shields to renew the attack, but that officer remained quiet. In the meanwhile General Ewell had taken position at Cross Keys, about five miles from Port Republic. His line was formed on a ridge commanding the country in THOMAS J. JACKSON. J ^ front of it, which was open. Bodies of woods were on both flanks. The road from Harrisonburg to Port Re- public passed through his line near its centre. Trimble's brigade, posted a little in advance of the centre, held the right, Stewart's brigade the left, and Brockenborough's, Courtney's, Lusk's and Rains' batteries were placed in the centre. Elzey's brigade was posted in the rear of the centre, in order to support either of the wings, both of which were in the woods. The 15th Alabama had been thrown forward about a mile, and were attacked by Fremont's forces just after the movement of Shields had been checked near Port Republic. The gallant resistance made by this regiment, enabled General Ewell to form his line of battle. The battle of Cross Keys was opened about ten o'clock by the enemy's skirmishers. In a short time the federal artillery took position opposite the confederate batteries, and a brisk artillery engagement ensued, lasting for sev- eral hours. Fremont now threw forward a brigade, under cover, to turn the right flank of the confederates. This force was driven back in handsome style by the troops of General Trimble. A federal battery was placed in front of Gen- eral Trimble, and about half a mile distant. That officer had been reinforced by the 13th and 25th Virginia regi- ments of Elzey's brigade, and he at once moved towards the enemy for the purpose of taking the battery. It was withdrawn before he reached it, but he succeeded in driving back its infantry support, and occupying a posi- tion a mile in advance of his original line. The enemy retired to the position held by them early in the morning. About two o'clock in the afternoon, General Ewell was 06 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL reinforced by Taylor's brigade, the 42nd and 48th Vir- ginia and the 1st battalion of Virginia regulars. Tay- lor's brigade was held in reserve, and the other reinforce- ments and Elzey's brigade, (with the exception of the two regiments which had been sent to General Trimble,) placed in the centre and on the left. It was reported about this time that the enemy were advancing in heavy force upon the left, and General Ewell prepared to resist their attack. The report proved false, and General Ewell advanced his lines ; and when night closed the struggle, Fremont had been driven back tAvo miles, and the confederates held the ground origi- nally occupied by the enemy. After nightfall, General Jackson withdrew General Ewell's troops and reunited them with the rest of the army. He left General Trimble's brigade, supported by the 42nd Virginia and the 1st battalion of Virginia regu- lars under Colonel Patton, in Fremont's front, with orders to hold him in check as long as possible, and then to fall back across North river, and burn the bridge after them. During the night, General Fremont massed his troops before Cross Keys, and the next morning, as soon as the sound of cannon in his front told him that Jackson had fallen upon Shields, marched to his assistance. General Trimble's little force fell back before him, skirmishing all the way, and by ten o'clock in the morning had crossed the river and destroyed the bridge. About sunrise on the morning of the 9th of June, Gen- eral Winder's brigade passed through Port Republic, crossed the South fork of the Shenandoah on a tempo- rary bridge made of wagons sunk in the stream, and THOMAS 3. JACKSON. 97 moved down the road along the bank of the river to at- tack the enemy. General Shields had formed his line of battle about a mile and three-quarters below Port Republic. His posi- tion was well chosen. His right rested upon the river, and his line extended for about half a mile over an open wheat field. His left rested upon the point of a low ridge that skirted the field at that side, and was partially protected by a copse of woods. Upon this ridge he had posted a battery of six pieces, which commanded the river road and the plain across which the Southern troops had to advance to attack him ; and upon some slight emi- nences in the river bottom he had planted two or three additional pieces. The position was admirably suited for defence, while the country in which General Jackson had to operate, was by no means favorable to him. About a mile and a half below Port Republic, General Winder drove in the federal pickets and began the en- gagement. The enemy opened upon him with a sharp fire of shell, causing him to suffer severely. Poague's two Parrott guns were posted on the left of the road for the purpose of silencing the federal batteries. It being impossible to move Carpenter's battery to the right, through the tangled undergrowth, a part of -it was placed in position near the Parrott guns. General Wilder having been reinforced by the 7th Louisiana, and being unable to silence the federal battery by his artillery, resolved to charge it and capture it. Accordingly he threw forward his brigade. It advanced gallantly, but was received by the enemy with such a withering fire from their battery and infantry, that it was forced to fall back towards the river. The federals 98 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL now advanced, and driving back the infantry supports, forced the Southern batteries to retire, and captured a six-pounder gun belonging to Poague's battery. General Ewell now threw the 58th and 44th Virginia under Colo- nel Scott, upon their flank, and checked their advance. It was a critical moment. Winder's command was largely outnumbered, and was in danger of being over- whelmed. At this moment the enemy were startled by a new danger to themselves, and forced to turn their atten- tion to another part of the field. Some time before this, seeing the danger that threat- ened Winder, General Jackson turned to General Taylor, and asked, pointing to the federal guns : " Can you take that battery ? It must be taken, or the day be lost !" "We can," replied Taylor; and pointing his sword to the battery, he cried to his men, " Louisianians, can you take that battery?" A cheer answered him. "Forward!" he cried. "Charge the battery and take it!" In order to reach the battery, Taylor moved through the woods that lined the ridge on the federal left. He moved rapidly over a rugged country and through a dense forest, and emerging from the woods just as the federals were forcing Winder towards tip river, charged the battery in the face of a terrific fire and captured it. The federals threw a heavy force upon Taylor, who was assailing their left and rear, and a desperate struggle ensued for the possession of the battery. It was retaken three times by the enemy, and as often captured again by the confederates. The enemv made desperate efforts to THOMAS J. JACKSON. 99 turn Taylor's flank, and opened on him a perfect shower of canister from a piece which had been rapidly brought into position about three hundred and fifty yards distant. Taylor fell back to the edge of the woods, from which he had emerged, and here the federals succeeded in re- capturing and carrying off one piece of the battery taken by Taylor, leaving the limber and caisson behind. General Shields now abandoned his movement upon Winder, and bent every energy to destroy Taylor. General Winder succeeded in rallying his command, and once more advanced upon the federals, who were trying to surround Taylor in the woods. Poague's battery was placed in its former position, and opened upon them ; Chew's battery, which had just come up, was assigned a position, and its fire opened on the enemy. Portions of Courtney's, Brockenborough's and Rains' batteries arri- ving afterwards, were placed in position and opened on the enemy. The 44th and 58th Virginia were sent to reinforce Taylor, who, upon their arrival, advanced his command upon the enemy, now suffering severely from the heavy fire of the Southern batteries, and forced them to fall back. Another charge, and the enemy broke and fled in confusion, leaving a number of their dead and wounded on the field. General Taliaferro's brigade had been left to hold the town of Port Republic, and secure the safe passage of North river by General Trimble's commands. After Trimble crossed the river, he remained in the town. These troops had been ordered to join General Jackson, when Winder was driven back on the federal right, and came upon the field just as the enemy began their retreat. Taliaferro s brigade, pouring a heavy fire into the flying 100 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL mass, joined in the pursuit, which was conducted by this brigade and that of General Winder, for five miles. The enemy retreated in the direction of Luray. The cavalry, under Colonel Munford, and some artillery, pur- sued them three miles further. In their retreat, the enemy lost 450 prisoners, 800 muskets, a number of wagons and one piece of artillery, which had been aban- doned. About 275 wounded federals fell into the hands of the confederates, and were paroled in the hospitals' near Port Republic. Fremont had been moving rapidly to Shields' assist- ance. He appeared on the opposite side of the South fork of the Shenandoah, as the routed federals were flying from the field. Being unable to cross to their as- sistance, he revenged himself by shelling the confederates who were on the field removing the wounded and burying the dead of both armies. He remained in t*he neighbor- hood of Port Republic until the 10th of June, when he drew off his army and retreated rapidly down the Valley. On the 12th, the cavalry under Colonel Munford, sent out to ascertain Fremont's position, entered Harrison- burg, capturing a quantity of stores and camp equipage, about 200 small arms, and"' 200 wounded men belonging to Fremont's army, who were paroled. The confederate loss in the battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic was 1,026 killed, wounded and missing, and one piece of artillery. The federal loss is not accu- rately knoAvn. It was about 2,000 or 2,500 killed, AYOunded and prisoners, seven pieces of artillery, with caissons and limbers, and 1,000 small arms. The war department at Richmond received from Gen- eral Jackson, the following announcement of his victory : THOMAS J. JACKSON. 101 Poet Republic, June 9th. \ Via Staunton, June 10th, 1862. J To S. Cooper, Adjutant-general : Through God's blessing, the enemy, near Port Republic, was this day routed with the loss of six pieces of his artillery. T. J. Jackson, Major-general. Shields, after his defeat, retreated rapidly towards Lu- ray, and Fremont fell back to Mount Jackson and began to fortify his position, being in hourly expectation of an advance by Jackson. On the 12th of June, General Jackson again crossed South river and marched to the neighborhood of Weyer's cave. " On the 14th, divine gervice was held in the army," and thanks returned to God for the success that had crowned the confederate arms. The Valley campaign — beginning with the advance of Banks upon Winchester, on the 11th of March, and end- ing with the crushing defeat of Shields at Port Republic — was closed. It had been one of extraordinary vigor and brilliancy. In the brief space of three' months through which it extended, hundreds of miles had been marched — three separate armies intended for the s destruc- tion of the little band of heroes, routed — the colossal plans of the enemy for the subjugation of Virginia over- thrown, and the record of Southern prowess brightened by the names of Kernstown, McDowell, Front Royal, Strasburg, Middletown, Winchester, Charlestown, Cross Keys and Port Republic. Let us glance at the leading features of the campaign. The army fell back from Winchester on the 11th of March, and retired as far as Mount Jackson, and then, rapidly retracing its steps, fought the battle of Kerns- 102 LIEUTENANT-GKNBRAL town on the 23d. Retiring again to Mount Jackson, it rested for a brief period until, upon the enemy's advance up the Valley, it retired to the neighborhood of Swift run gap. On the 7th of May it swept over the moun- tains, fell upon Fremont's advance and drove it back in confusion. Then bearing eastward, it returned to the Valley, and falling suddenly upon General Banks, routed his army and drove it out of Virginia, capturing and immense amount of spoils and over three thousand prisoners. Then by a retrograde movement, the celerity of vrhich seems almost superhuman, it returned to the upper Shenandoah, baffling the efforts of the federal commanders, and defeating with heavy losses, the very forces sent to capture it. In thirty-two days it had marched nearly four hundred miles, skirmishing almost daily, fought five battles, defeated three armies, two of which were completely routed, captured about twenty pieces of artillery, some four thousand prisoners, and immense quantities of stores of all kinds, and had done all this with a loss of less than one thousand men killed, wounded and missing. Surely a more brilliant record cannot be found in the history of the world ; and General Jackson might well say this was accomplished "through God's blessing." The campaign was planned and executed by General' Jackson, and must constitute the real test of his gene- ralship. He struck at the enemy boldly, vigorously and successfully. Sweeping them before him with irresistible force, he placed his command in a position in which the federals thought it easy to annihilate it. Two strong columns were hurled upon him, with great hope of crush- ing him. He moved rapidly between these, and when he THOMAS J. JACKSON. 103 reached his mountain lair, turned fiercely upon them and drove both down the Valley with the fury of a lion at bay. Every plan of the enemy was defeated, their most secret devices penetrated and foiled, and just at the mo- ment when* they thought their success complete, they were hurled from the path of the great commander, stunned by the force of the blow. We can compare this campaign with but one other — Napoleon's first campaign in Italy. Indeed, if, in this comparison, we remember that the army of Italy was composed of regular troops enured to the hardships and fatigues of war, and that Jackson's men were volunteers, some of whom had never seen service, and all of whom had to learn the art of war, we shall find the comparison not unfair, and the com- mander of the glorious army of the Valley will not suffer by it.* General Jackson had not only beaten his enemies ; he had done more — he had conquered public opinion, and fought his way into the affections of his countrymen. When he took command in the Valley, in the fall of 1861, he was comparatively unknown, or known simply as a major-general commanding a portion of the confede- rate army. He was severely censured for his Bath and Romney expedition, declared by numerous home-made military critics, a rash, blundering blockhead, and the great mass of the people began-to doubt whether he was the proper person to be entrusted with such an important command. The people of the South were not less sur- * The late Colonel Crozet, who had served under the great Napo- leon, was once asked if Jackson's movements did not remind him of the emperor's. " Sir !" exclaimed the old man with enthusiasm, '' they are extra Napoleonic .'" 104 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL prised than were the enemy, by the suddenness and bril- liancy of the movement upon Kernstown, and began to see a probability that Jackson might be a very good sol- dier after all. The news from McDowell had scarcely been realized, when it was followed by the bulletins an- nouncing the success of the expedition against Banks. General Jackson now appeared in a new light, and when the story of the march up the Valley and the battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic was told, he stood fore- most among the heroes of the war. The people were surprised, delighted, fascinated. There was about the exploits of Jackson so much splendor and attraction, that they could not fail to attract the hearts and take captive the imaginations of the public. His deeds were full of romance and chivalry, and high above them all shone out the pure and beautiful character of the man. The people were astonished, but it was because they had not known General Jackson. He exhibited no new trait to cause all their admiration. The young artille- rist, pacing calmly before his guns in Mexico, to show his men that the enemy could not hurt him, and then pushing forward stubbornly, sweeping the enemy before him — the quiet professor, whose earnestness, firmness and rigid discipline were the wonder and amusement of his pupils — the calm, undismayed brigadier, whose only rem- edy for the danger of defeat was the bayonet — the deter- mined, taciturn major-general who led the march to Bath and filled his hospitals with his sick — the rapid marcher who fell upon Shields at Kernstown — the commander of an army who freed the Valley from the enemy — the skil- ful strategist, who baffled the schemes of his foes and crushed them at the very moment they thought him in THOMAS J. JACKSON. 105 their power — all these were but the various developments of the character of one man — the glorious hero, whose name was now on every tongue — and in every aspect in which that character had presented itself, might be seen the same striking features — the marks that dis- tinguished him from other men. Those who knew him intimately, were not surprised at his success. They had been expecting it. When the war began, one man had the wisdom and courage to recommend Jackson to the governor of Virginia, as the best man to be given the command of the state troops, and it was fortunate that the recommendation was heeded. Having taken hold of the popular affection, General Jackson was not very fairly treated. The popular idea of his personal appearance was not in accordance with the reality, and many extravagant pictures of him were drawn by various persons. Captain Cooke, in his biography of him, presents the most truthful sketch I have yet seen, and I cannot refrain from introducing it here. It is as follows : " The outward appearance of the famous leader was not imposing. * * * * * * * He wore an old, sun-embrowned coat of gray cloth, origi- nally a .very plain one, and now almost out at the elbows. To call it sun-embrowned, however, is scarcely to convey an adequate idea of the extent of its discoloration. It had that dingy hue, the result of exposure to rain and snow and scorching sunshine, which is so unmistake- able. It was plain that the general had often stretched his weary form upon the bare ground, and slept in the old coat ; and it seemed to have brought away with it no little of the dust of the Valley. A holiday soldier would 14 106 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL have disdained to wear such a garment ; but the men of the old Stonewall brigade, with their brave comrades of the corps, loved that coat and admired it and its owner imore than all the holiday uniforms and holiday warriors in the world. The remainder of the general's costume was as much discolored as the coat ; he wore cavalry boots reaching to the knee, and his head was surmounted by an old cap more faded than all ; the sun had turned it quite yellow, indeed, and it tilted so far over the Avearer's forehead, that he was compelled to raise his chin in the air, in order to look under the rim. His horse was not a " fiery steed," pawing and ready to dart forward at "the thunder of the captains and the shouting," but an old raw-boned sorrel, gaunt and grim — a horse of astonishing equanimity, who seemed to give himself no concern on any subject, and calmly moved about, like his master, careless of cannon ball or bullet, in the hottest moments of battle. The general rode in a peculiar fashion, lean- ing forward somewhat, and apparently unconscious that he was in the saddle. His air was singularly abstracted, and unless aware of his identity, no beholder would have dreamed that this plainly clad and absent looking soldier was the idolized leader of a great army corps, at that very instant hurling themselves, column after column, upon the foe. The glittering eye beneath the yellow cap would have altered somewhat the impression that this man was "a nobody" — that wonderful eye, in whose blaze was the evidence of a slumbering volcano ; but be- yond this, there was absolutely nothing in the appear- ance of General Jackson to indicate his great rank or genius as a soldier." General Jackson's habits and mode of life were very THOMAS J. JACKSON. 10T simple. He lived very plainly, never asking for anything his men could not share, unless it was necessary to him. He had but one tent, and that one no better than if it had belonged to the humblest private in his command. Often he was without it. He seemed to be pleased when he had left it behind, and then, wrapping himself up in his blankets, and lying down on the ground he would sleep as soundly as if he were in a palace. He made very little use of the privileges to which his rank entitled him. He believed that luxuries unfitted a soldier for his duty. He was a sincere christian, and his habits were strongly marked by his earnest, unaffected piety. He had a high temper, but he ruled it so well that it was rare for him to give way to outbursts of passion, and when he did so, it was only under some sudden and powerful provocation. He was kind and gentle, very forbearing and exceedingly charitable towards others. Captain Cooke, from whose valuable work I have already quoted at some length, says of him : "Jackson's habitual temper of mind was a gentle and child-like sweetness ; a simplicity and purity of heart, which proved that he had indeed become "as a little child" — walking humbly and devoutly before his God. Prayer" was like breathing with him — the normal condi- tion of his being. Every morning he read his bible and prayed, and the writer will not soon forget the picture drawn by one of his distinguished associates, who rode to his headquarters at daylight, last November, when the army was falling back to Fredericksburg from the Valley, and found him reading his testament quietly in his tent, an operation which he only interrupted to describe, in 108 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL tones of quiet simplicity, his intended movements to foil the enemy. Before sitting clown to table, he raised both hands and said grace. When he contemplated any move- ment, his old servant is said to have known it by his " wrestling in prayer" for many hours of the night; and on the battle field thousands noticed the singular gesture with the right arm, sometimes both arms, raised aloft. Those who looked closely at him at such moments, saw his lips moving in prayer. Like Joshua, he prayed with uplifted hands for victory." And yet some persons called Jackson " a puritan." It is true the religious element of his character was one of its most striking features, but he made no parade of his piety. He was so earnest, so simple, that he was utterly unconscious of the fact that he was one of the brightest lights of the church on earth. So far from being a puritan, he was one of the most liberal men in matters of religion, to be found in this liberal land. The writer of these pages knew him while he was a prominent member of the Presbyterian church in Lexington, at a time when religious disputes were running high in that little town, and was struck with his true christian charity for the honest convictions of other parties. A short time before his death, he wrote to a friend in relation to the duties and difficulties of army chaplains : "Denominational distinctions should be kept out of view — and not touched upon. And as a general rule, I do not think that a chaplain who would preach denomi- national sermons should be in the army. His congrega- tion is his regiment, and is composed of various denomi- nations. I would like to see no questions asked in the army what denomination a chaplain belongs to, but let THOMAS J. JACKSON. 109 the question be, does he preach the gospel ? The neglect of the spiritual interests of the army may be seen from the fact that not half of my regiments have chaplains." Let us resume the narration of General Jackson's campaigns. The command of the confederate army before Rich- mond having been assumed by General Lee, on the 1st of June, he had determined to attack McClellan as soon as possible and raise the siege of the city. Jackson had drawn the column of General McDowell from its march to McClellan's assistance, and it was necessary to strike the enemy before this column could be sent to it again. Reinforcements from Lee's army were sent to General Jackson, and he was ordered to march at once to the Chickahominy for the purpose of joining in the struggle for the confederate capital. Shields had disappeared down the Valley, Fremont was fortifjnng at Mount Jack- son, and it was evident General Jackson had nothing to fear from either of them. Leaving General Robertson's brigade of cavalry and Chew's battery to cover his move- ments and watch the enemy, he left his camp near TVey- er's cave on the 17th of June, and began his march to Richmond. The movement of General Jackson was very hazardous, and it was necessary to preserve the greatest secrecy concerning it. The troops were ordered to maintain the strictest silence regarding it. They were instructed to give no information to any one during the march. If questioned as to their destination, the names of their commanders, or from what place they had come, they were to reply : " I don't know." This gave rise to an amusing incident. On the second 110 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL day of the march, one of the men belonging to Hood's brigade, (which had been detached from Lee's army and sent to Jackson), left the ranks, and started towards a cherry tree in a neighboring field. General Jackson, happening to be near, observed this, and riding up to the man, asked : " Where are you going, sir ?" "I don't know," replied the man coolly. " To what command do you belong ?" " I don't know." " Well ! what state are you from ?" asked the general in great astonishment. " I don't know," replied the man with the utmost gravity. Another straggler had now come up, and General Jack- son turning to him, asked in sunrise : " What is the meaning of this ?" " Why, you see," said the man, " Old Stonewall and General Hood issued orders yesterday that we were not to know anything until after the next fight ; and we are not going to disobey orders." The general smiled, and ordering the men to take their places in the ranks, rode oif, much pleased with the fidelity with which his orders were executed. At Gordonsville the troops were embarked on the cars, and conveyed as far as Frederick's hall in Louisa county. Leaving the cars there they moved across the country, and on the evening of the 25th of June, reached the little village of Ashland in Hanover county, sixteen miles from Richmond, driving in the enemy's pickets, which were stationed near that place. The federal army under General McClellan was lying THOMAS J. JACKSOS". Ill on the Chickahominy about four or five miles below Rich- mond. Its right wing held Mechanicsville, a little village in Hanover county, with detached portions occupying the heights as far as the Meadow^bridges. From Mechan- icsville, its line extended along the north bank of the Chickahominy, following the direction of that stream, (which sweeps around Richmond from west to east in a semi-circular course), to Bottom's bridge. Its right wing had been thrown across the river near Bottom's bridge, and was massed along the line of the York river railroad as far as Fair Oaks station. The federals had strength- ened their position by a series of most elaborate fortifi- cations, and deemed themselves so secure, that General McClellan, in a speech to a portion of his army, assured them that no troops in the world could carry such works if defended by even a handful of men. When the enemy crossed the Chickahominy in May, and advanced his lines towards Richmond, General John- ston, then in command of the confederate army, had dealt them a terrible blow at Seven Pines, and forced them to halt at Fair Oaks station. General Johnston was wounded in the battle, and the command passed to General Lee. General Lee determined to strike the enemy at the earliest moment. His plan was worthy of his great genius. It was to turn McClellan's left flank, get in his rear, attack him in his strong works on the north bank of the Chickahominy, and drive him from them. This would compel the federal commander to reunite his forces on one side of the stream, and would give the confede- rates an opportunity to throw their entire army upon him, defeat him and raise the siege of the city. 112 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL The disposition of McClellan's troops was highly favor- able to the success of such a plan. He had placed the Chickahoininy between his two wings, and had by the nature of his line rendered it impossible for either wing to .strengthen the other without exposing itself to the danger of defeat. So skilfully and surely laid were the plans of General Lee, that when the attack was made, McClellan's defeat was inevitable. Indeed, the latter was aware of the ar- rival of Jackson at Ashland almost as soon as the place was reached by the Valley forces, and on the 25th of June, wrote to Secretary Stanton — "I incline to think that Jackson will attack my right and rear. * * * I shall probably be attacked to-morrow." This knowledge availed him nothing. The young Na- poleon felt that his sun had set. Lee held him with a hand of iron. He saw clearly his approaching ruin, but he was powerless to avert it. General Lee had saved Richmond before a blow was struck. To General Jackson, General Lee assigned the duty of turning McClellan's left flank, gaining his rear, and cut- ting off his retreat from the White House. General Jackson's command now comprised the follow- ing troops: Major-general Whiting's division, which had been sent him from Lee's army, (consisting of General Hood's and Colonel Law's brigades and Reilly's and Balthis' batteries); Major-general Ewell's division, (con- sisting of General Elzey's, (4th); General Trimble's, (7th), and Colonel Seymour's (8th, Taylor's old brigade) brigades ; the Maryland line ; Colonel Johnson and Brock- enborough's, Courtney's and Carrington's batteries ; General Jackson's old division, (consisting of General THOMAS J. JACKSON. 118 Winder's, (the 1st, the "Stonewall"); Lieutenant-colonel Cunningham's, (the 2nd) ; Colonel Eulkerson's, (the 3rd), and General Lawton's, (the 4th) brigades, and Poague's, Carpenter's and Wooding's batteries. With this force Jackson was to attack the enemy in flank and rear, while Lee with the main army would at- tack them in front. At three o'clock on the morning of the 26th of June, General Jackson left Ashland and marched towards Han- over courthouse. Stuart's cavalry moved in front of his column and protected his left. Whiting's division w.as in the advance. The federal pickets fell back before General Jackson, and made no resistance until Tottapo- tomoi creek was reached. Th^s creek is scarcely more than a swamp, and the banks, which are covered with a thick woods, are steep and difficult of ascent. Here the federals destroyed the bridge and attempted to obstruct the road by felling trees. A detachment of skirmishers from Hood's brigade soon drove the enemy from their position, the bridges were repaired, the stream crossed, and the march resumed. During the remainder of the day the enemy made repeated, feeble attempts to impede the advance of Jackson's forces, but were driven steadily before them. General Jackson halted for the night at Hundley's corner in Hanover. He had now turned the federal right flank and gained their rear. He was in possession of a position which would enable him to fall' upon Mc- Clellan's rear at Cold Harbor the next day, and, if ne- cessary, he could cut off the retre^of the federals to- wards the White House. Early the next morning he moved rapidly towards 114 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL Cold Harbor. While he is on his march, let us glance at affairs in other quarters of the great field.. Brigadier-general Branch, on the afternoon of the 26th of June, crossed the Chickahominy at the point where the Brook turnpike crosses that stream, and dri- ving the enemy's forces before him, marched down the river to effect a junction with Major-general A. P Hill. General A. P, Hill crossed the Chickahominy at the Meadow bridges, drove the enemy from their strong works in the neighborhood of Mechanicsville, and opened a way for, the passage of the river by the rest of the forces of General Longstreet, which consisted of Long- street's old division and D. H. Hill's division. The next day (June 27th) the federal army was driven back to Gaines' mill, where a stand was made. A fierce and vigorous assault was made upon the enemy's strongly en- trenched position in the neighborhood of Gaines' mill, and after a desperate struggle, the federals were driven from the works. Having been forced from his strong position at Gaines' mill, General McClellan massed his troops and formed a new line of battle at Cold Harbor, intending to make there a last stand for the possession of .the north bank of the Chickahominy. From Gaines' mill, the confederates pressed on towards Cold Harbor. They had not been able to use a single piece of their artillery in the attack upon Gaines' mill, and were 'now advancing without it. The enemy pre- sented a formidable appearance. Their force comprised the commands of McCall, Porter and Sedgewick, and about thirty pieces of artillery. They held a strong po- sition at Cold Harbor, and were moving heavy masses of THOMAS J. JACKSON. 115 troops through the woods for the purpose of surrounding the confederates. The were numerically superior to the confederate forces, and for a moment it seemed that the latter would be overwhelmed. The enemy's column approached rapidly through the woods. In a short time the confederates would be com- pletely outflanked. At this moment a sheet of flame burst from the woods before them, and a storm of balls swept through the hostile ranks. The enemy paused in surprise, while the fatal fire was hurled upon them more •fiercely than before. A wild and joyful cry rang along the southern lines, and the shout of " Jackson ! Jackson !" -was. passed from man to man. The conjecture was correct. Two or three brigades had been sent on in advance by General Jack- son, and had arrived upon the scene of conflict at this critical moment. Early in the morning General Jackson had taken up his line of march for Cold Harbor, moving steadily to- wards the Chiekahominy. Ewell led the advance, and swept the enemy before him. Cold Harbor was reached about five o'clock in the afternoon, just as the enemy were endeavoring to crush the column of General A. P Hill. The line of battle was speedily formed. Whiting was on the right of the line ; next came Jackson's, then Ewell's, and then D. H. Hill's flivision the last, on the left. Stuart's cav- alry were posted to the left of Hill and ordered, to prevent the enemy from retreating towards the White House. The rapid firing on the right induced General Jackson to suppose that the confederate force in that direction 116 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL was heavily pressed by the enemy, and he immediately moved forward with his whole corps. As soon as the heavy volleys in the direction of the federal rear informed General Lee of the arrival of Gen- eral Jackson, General Longstreet's forces were hurried forward, and the action became general. The limits of this work forbid any further allusion to the part borne by the other portions of the army, and, for the future, I shall be forced to confine myself simply to the operations of General Jackson's command, with but an occasional reference to the rest of the troops. The federal line in front of General Jackson was very strong. The right rested on a ridge, almost parallel to the Chickahominy, and the left on a sharp bluff, at the foot of which were a deep ravine and two lines of en- trenchments. Several batteries of artillery were posted on this bluff. Their front was protected by a swamp, through which ran a little creek difficult to pass, a thick undergrowth, and a quantity of felled timber. General Jackson directed* General D. H. Hill to carry the federal left. Hill's troops passed across the swamp, the creek, the undergrowth and obstructions in front, in the face of a heavy fire, and gallantly assailing the enemy, forced them to fall back on their reserve. The federals made a stand behind a fence and a ditch, and posted a battery so as to enfilade Hill's line. The 1st, 3rd and 20th Ntirth Carolina charged it and took it, and Hi]J, now supported by the " Stonewall brigade" under General Winder, pressed on. Upon reaching the crest of the hill, he was assailed by the whole federal force in his front, and the enemy succeeded in recapturing their battery. General Hill held with stubborn courage THOMAS J. JACKSON. HT the position he had gained, and the battle went on with increased fury. General Ewell was moving on the right of General Hill. He surmounted the obstacles in his way, and charged up the hill with impetuosity, driving the enemy before him. Soon after he reached the crest of the hill, he was reinforced by Lawton's and Trimble's brigades, and continued to press the enemy heavily. About dusk he was compelled to draw off his troops, having fired every round of ammunition in his command.. Jackson's old division was originally posted on Swell's right, but^its brigades were sent to reinforce other parts of the line. The Stonewall brigade was marched to the left to Gen- eral Hill's support, and bore a conspicuous part in the battle. It never wavered, but moved on steadily, press- ing the federals back, and had the honor of carrying with the bayonet the last position of the enemy — a point some three hundred yards beyond McGee's. General Wilcox having' called for reinforcements, the 2nd brigade was sent to him, but reached him too late to take part in the battle. The 3rd brigade was sent to General Whiting's assistance, but reached him too late. The 4th brigade was added to General Ewell's com- mand. General Whiting's division held the extreme right of the line, and its advance was greeted by the enemy with a withering fire, but it pressed forward. Hood's Texans, with thrilling cheers, dashed through the ravine, and over the ditch and felled timber, and drove the enemy from their position. They captured nearly a thousand pris- oners, inflicted a heavy loss in tilled and wounded upon 118 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL the enemy, and captured fourteen pieces of artillery. Their loss was 1,000 men. The movements of Jackson's divisions were simulta- neous. They had no artillery in action when the battle began. Shortly afterwards Captain John Pelham of the Stuart horse artillery, was ordered to take position a little beyond Cold Harbor house with one Blakeley and one Napoleon gun, and open upon the federal batteries for the purpose of drawing a portion of their fire from the troops of D. H. Hill and Yv'inder. His position was very near the federal batteries, whose heavy guns soon rendered his Blakeley gun unfit for service, but he continued to hold his ground with his remaining gun, serioiTsly annoying the enemy by the steady fire which he maintained in spite of their efforts to silence him. Soon afterwards additional guns t were sent to the point held by " the gallant Pelham," and an effective fire opened on the fe^ era-Is, whose replies became feebler and less frequent. The night was now setting in, and, General Jackson having ordered the troops to " press them with the bayo- net," the whole line charged the enemy, whose right was now seriously weakened by' the heavy fire of the confede- rate batteries. Hood's and the " Stonewall" brigades were in advance of the rest of Jackson's line, and drove every obstacle before them. The enemy 1 wavered, and turning about, fled in confusion towards Grapevine bridge, closely pursued by Jackson's men. General McClellan's army was routed. Lee, Long- street and A. P. Hill had driven it from its entrench- ments and forced it back to the position at Cold Harbor. Here McClellan thought he could repulse any 'attack made upon him, and formed his line with a bright hope THOMAS J. JACKSON. 119 of success. Alas ! for that hope ! he had been driven back from Mechanicsville only to meet with a worse de- feat at the hands of Jackson. The battle had been a desperate struggle, but the con- federate victory was complete. The enemy crowded along the bank of the Chick- ahominy in confusion and dismay, momentarily expecting the confederates to advance upon them. The Southern army bivouaced on the battle field, and General McClel- lan, having succeeded in restoring order, among his troops, withdrew his defeated right wing, during the night, to the south bank of the Chickahominy. It was now useless to think of attempting, to hold his position on the south, side, for such an effort would, ensure either the capture or destruction of his army. He had but one course to pursue — to seek safety in flight. Two routes were open to him ; one down the peninsula, and the other through the swamps to the James river. The former would be attended with great danger, as he might be ruined in another battle. The latter was more favor- able to him, as it offered him the means of eluding in the thick swamp, the vigilance of his pursuers. He chose the route to James river, and after destroying enormous quantities of stores of all kinds, and reducing his army to the smallest allowance of baggage, began his retreat. His" route lay right through the confederate lines, and owing to the carelessness or inefficiency of the confederate officer charged with the duty of intercepting him, he was enabled to pass through in safety. His retreat was con- ducted with great skill, but his escape was due to a blun- der on the part of the confederates. On the 28th, General Jackson sent General Ewell with 120 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL his division and Stuart's cavalry to Dispatch station on the York river railroad. Stuart drove off a yankee force and Ewell's men destroyed a considerable portion of the railroad and the telegraph to the White House. Having ascertained that the enemy had not retreated towards the Pamunkey, General Ewell moved to Bottom's bridge. The next day he rejoined General Jackson's command. On the nirht of the 29th, General Jackson repaired the Grapevine bridge, by which the federal army had retreated acrqss the Chickahominy,' and which they had destroyed after them, and marched to Savage station on the York river railroad. At this point he se.cured about 1,000 stragglers from the federal army and dis- covered the immense stores abandoned by them. Pushing on, he came up with the enemy the next day • at White Oak swamp. The federals had crossed the stream, destroyed the bridge, and posted a strong artillery force and a detachment of sharpshooters on the opposite side to prevent the passage of the stream by the confeder- ates. General Jackson moved up a portion of his bat- teries and a brisk fight ensued. The enemy fell back at night, and General Jackson repaired the bridge and con- tinued the pursuit. The next morning he was ordered to the front by General Lee. On the afternoon of the same day, July 1st, he came up with McClellan at Malvern hill. The federal army held a position of exceeding great strength, and their artillery was massed upon a point from which it could sweep every approach to the hill. Major-general Magruder attacked the enenyy on the right, and Generarjackson's corps on the left of the confederate line in this battle. Whiting held the left of Jackson's line, and P. H. THOMAS J. JACKSOX. 121 Hill the right. Taylor's brigade of Swell's division, was in the centre in advance of the wings, and the re- mainder of Ewell's division was held in reserve in the rear of this line. Jackson's old division was held in re- serve near Willis' church. General D. H. Hill, thinking that a general . advance had been ordered by General Lee, moved forward gal- lantly to attack the almost impregnable position of the enemy. He encountered a stubborn resistance from a si^erior force, and was compelled to send for assistance. Ewell's reserve and Jackson's old division were ordered to him, but owing to the approach of night and the diffi- culties presented by the swampy grounds and "thick woods through which they had to move, did not reach the field in time. to render any aid to Hill, who was forced to fall back with heavy loss. The federals now made an advance upon Jackson's line, but were driven back by the fire of Whiting's artillery on the left, Jackson's men slept on their arms in front of the fede- ral position. At daylight the next morning, the federal army was not to be seen. It had retreated during the night. The attack of Magruder and Jackson upon .Malvern hill, had inflicted such a blow upon the federals and had demoralized their forces to such a» extent, that General McClellan was forced to abandon Malvern hill, which .he had determined to hold permanently, not daring to sub- ject his army to another attack from the confederates, lest it should be utterly ruined. He abandoned the hill during the night and fell back to the James river. In this battle General Jackson had a very narrow es- cape. He was reconnoitering the position of the enemy, 16 122 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL when a shell fell and exploded between the forelegs of his horse, fortunately without injuring either the horse or its rider. The plan of General Lee, save in one or two instances, resulting from the neglect of subordinates, had been suc- cessfully, executed. General Jackson had promptly and ably seconded him in all his efforts, and the assistance he rendered during the brief but eventful campaign of the Chickahominy was incalculable. General Jackson's loss- in the battles before Richmond was as follows : in the battle of Cold Harbor, 589 killed and 2,671 wounded ; at Malvern hill, 377 killed and 1,746' wounded — making a total of 5,383. General Jackson was in favor of advancing upon Mc- Clellan, and attacking him in his new position, the morn- ing after the battle of Malvern hill, but it was deemed best by General Lee to refrain from further pursuit. The evidence furnished the committee appointed by the yankee congress to investigate the conduct of the war, proves beyond all possibility of doubt, that an advance upon McClellan after the battle of Malvern hill, Avould have been a death blow to his army. The confederate army remained in front of McClellan until the 8th of July, when it fell back nearer to Rich- mond. The campaign in lower Virginia was over, and General Jackson and his glorious army were now to pass through new scenes. After being so completely out-generalled by Jackson, Fremont was removed from his command in the Valley, and succeeded by Major-general John Pope, or as he is better known, "Proclamation General Pope." THOMAS J. JACKSON. 123 The defeat of McClellan's army having put an end to the campaign in the peninsula, the federal government resolved to make another effort to capture Richmond, by advancing General Pope's army from the Rappahannock and Rapidan. General Pope moved his forces across the mountains and appeared in the neighborhood of the Rapi- dan, and thus began his celebrated campaign in "Virginia. This General Pope had held, previous to his appear- ance in Virginia, the command of a division in the fede- ral army under General Halleck, and had rendered him- self quite famous by his lying propensities. He was the same officer who captured (?) during the retreat of Gene- ral Beauregard from Corinth, the ten thousand confede- rate soldiers, who so singularly disappeared after their capture. It is possible that this brilliant exploit (.') pro- cured him the command of Fremont's army. From his " headquarters in the saddle," he issued the most pompous and absurd proclamations, in which he an- nounced that there would be no more "lines of retreat," "no more " bases of supplies," no more ditching or in- trenching. He boasted, that in his previous career, he had not been able to see anything but the u hacks" of his enemies, and promised his army a glorious victory whenever they should encounter the "rebels." He at 1 once inaugurated a system of tyranny and oppression from which he was driven only by the stern but tardy measures of retaliation adopted by the confederate gov- ernment. The people and the country in which his army was quartered, suffered Severely from the infamous con- duct of their "Northern hrcthren"(?) and General Pope and his army will ever be remembered in Virginia by the shame they ^Yon by their conduct. 124 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL ' It was necessary to check the advance of General. Pope, and also retain at Richmond a sufficient number of troops to meet McClcllan, who was supposed to be contempla- ting another movement upon the capital. General Jack- son was ordered to proceed to the Rapidan and guard the country south of that stream against the incursions of Pope's army, while General Lee with the rest of the army, remained at Richmond. He . arrived at Gprdons- ville on the 19th of July with his old division and that of General Ewell. Finding; that his force was too small to resist the advance of the enemy, General. Jackson asked for more troops, and the division of General A. P. Hill was sent to him. Pope's army was assuming a very threatening atti- tude, and General Jackson thought it necessary to attack it before it could receive reinforcements. He was in- formed that only a part o'f it was at Culpeper courthouse, and he determined to fall upon it at once. He left Gordonsville on the 7th of August, and moved with his army towards the Rapidan, which stream hs crossed on -the 8th. The cavalry under General Robert- son led the advance, and the infantry followed, Swell's division being in front. On the morning of the 8th, General Robertson en- countered the federal cavalry beyond the Rapidan, and drove them back to Culpeper courthouse. The enemy's cavalry threatened to cut oil General Jackson's train, and to prevent this he sent General Lawton's brigade to guard the wagons. On the 9th of August, General Jackson resumed, his march towards Culpeper courthouse, and encountered the enemy at a point eight miles from that place. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 125 A body of federal cavalry was seen on the right of the road by which the confederates were advancing, and was driven off by a battery commanded by Lieutenant Terry. A battery of the enemy returned this fire, and soon after- wards the cavalry resumed their original position. Early's brigade was now thrown forward near the road to Culpeper courthouse, and General Ewell was ordered to move with Trimble's and Hays' brigades, farther to the right, passing near the base of Slaughter's mountain. In front of Early was a-.hill, which he soon gained, driving the federal cavalry before him. In front of his new position was another hill, upon which the federal ar- tillery was-posted. The valley lying between the two forces was open and rugged, and consisted of a cornfield with a wheat field to the left, in which the stacks were still standing. The opposite hill was wooded. As Early reached his new position, the enemy opened on him with their artillery, and began to mass their cav- alry in the wheat field referred to. General Early moved his infantry a little to#he rear, in order to screen them from the fire of the federal artillerjr, and threw forward on his right and a little in advance, four pieces of artil- lery, which opened an effective fire upon the yankee bat- teries. General Winder now- came up with Jackson's division, and placed Campbell's brigade to the left, in the woods, near the wheat field, and Taliaferro's brigade parallel to the Culpeper road, with Poague's, Carpenter's and Cas- kie's batteries, in front of it. Winder's brigade (the " Stonewall") wag held in reserve. General Winder had just formed his line, when he was mortally wounded by the explosion of a shell. The com- 126 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL mand of the division passed to Brigadier-general Talia- ferro. While these events were transpiring, General Ewell had gained the position to which he had been ordered — the northwestern extremity of Slaughter's mountain. He placed' Latimer's battery at a point about two hundred feet above the valley beneath, and opened a heavy fire upon the federal guns, doing them serious damage. The artillery duel (in which nearly, all of Jackson's batteries were engaged) continued for about two hours — the enemy suffering greatly. About five o'clock in the afternoon, the enemy ad- vanced his skirmishers and moved to the front his in- fantry, which until then had been hid in the woods to the rear and left of his artillery. Another body of infantry, hitherto concealed in the valley by the rolling country, advanced towards the point occupied by Early's artillery, and upon which his right flank rested. The battle between the infantry once opened, soon be- came general. & General A. P Hill's division now arrived, and General Thomas' brigade was sent to General Early's assistance. The attack upon Early's position, was intended to cover an attempt to. turn the confederate left flank. A heavy column of the enemy was hurled upon it, and succeeded in driving it back and assailing it fiercely in the rear. Campbell's brigade fell back, and the enemy pressing on, forced Taliaferro's brigade and a portion of Early's troops back from their position. The artillery of Jack- son's division being thus exposed, was withdrawn. General Jackson's army was now, in great danger of being defeated. Dashing to the left, General Jackson, THOMAS J. JACKSON. 127 usually so calm and cool under all circumstances, threw himself between the enemy and his retreating troops, and in loud and ringing tones, and all unmindful of the ter- rible fire to which he was exposed, commanded the men to form again. Reassured by his enthusiasm and hero- ism, they rallied. At this moment the old " Stonewall brigade" and Branch's brigadeof Hill's division came up: Placing himself in front of the line, General Jack- son gave his brief, stern order: "Press them with the bayonet !" The troops swept forward, drove the ad- vancing enemy before them, and re-established the line of battle. Archer's and Pender's brigades now came up, and a general charge was ordered. The enemy were driven with great loss across the valley and into the woods be- yond it. The federal commander now hurled his. cavalry upon Taliaferro's brigade, but they were met with such a galling fire from this brigade in front, and branch's brigade as- sailed them so' heavily on their flank, that they wheeled and fled, having suffered severely. The fire of the confederate batteries had forced Gene- ral Ewell to remain silent, as an advance on his part would have exposed his men to the fire of their friends' artillery. When the infantry engagement resulted in the repulse oi*the federals, and he could move across the valley, he advanced his command and made a spirited attack upon the enemy's left. The whole line was now pressing heavily upon the enemy, and just a'S the moon was rising they gave way at all points and abandoned the field, leaving their killed and wounded behind them. 128 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL The enemy fell back to a thick wood, about two miles in the rear of the battle field. Being anxious to reach Culpeper courthouse that night, General Jackson ad- vanced his weary troops in pursuit, Hill's division being in front. After a march of about a mile and a half, the enemy was encountered. Pegram's battery, with Fields' brigade for a suppcfrt, was thrown forward, and before the enemy were aware of its presence, had opened a rapid and effective fire upon them. The yankee infantry broke and fled in every di- rection. Three federal batteries were thrown forward and opened on Pegram, who continued gallantly to main- tain his ground, though against such heavy odds, but was finally forced to withdraw with severe loss. General Jackson, having been informed of the arrival of reinforcements for the enemy, ordered a halt for the night. The next morning it became evident that the federal army had been largely reinforced, and General Jackson concluded not to advance. He made the necessary ar- rangements for defending his position, and ordered the dead to be buried, the wounded to be sent to the rear, and the arms left on the field by the enemy to be collected. The day passed off very quietly, the enemy making no demonstration, and on the 11th they sent in a flag of truce, asking permission to bury their dead, aftd the day was spent in performing that duty. Having accomplished all that he desired, General Jack- son, on the night of the lltb, withdrew his troops and retired across the Rapidan. His army lay almost within musket range of the enemy, and yet so skilfully and suc- cessfully was the retreat effected, that the federals knew THOMAS J. JACKSON. 129 &o thing of it until the next morning, when they found that the Southern forces had disappeared. In the battle of Cedar run. the enemy had thirty-two' thousand men" engaged, and were commanded by Gene- rals Pope, McDowell, Seigel and Banks. They sustained a bloody defeat. Their loss was very heavy in killed and wounded, and has been estimated at from three to four thousand. Certainly it was very severe. General Gor- don, commanding one of their brigades, speaks of his loss as follows: "I carried into action less than 1,500 men. I lost in about thirty minutes .466 hilled, wounded and missing. *■ * * * As I approached, the enemy received me with a rapid and destructive fire. For at least thirty minute's this terrible fire continued. Companies were left without officers, and men were fall- ing in every direction from the -fire of the enemy. * * It was too evident that the spot that had witnessed the destruction of one brigade, would be, in a few minutes, the grave of mine. I had lost more than thirty in every hundred of my command." General Crawford, another of their officers, says in his. report : " The whole woods became one sheet of fire and storm of lead. The enemy's infantry was crowded into the timber, and into some underbrush at our right, and they mowed our poor fellows down like grass. The over- whelming numbers of the enemy forced us to fall back, but only when not a field officer remained." Surely, if the rest of the federal -army suffered in the same proportion, the estimate of its losses given above is very moderate. The enemy also lost about four hundred prisoners, including one of their brigade commanders — General Prince — five thousand three hundred and two 17 130 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL stands of arms, one- Napoleon gun, twelve wagon loads of ammunition, and several wagon loads of new clothing. The confederate force engaged, consisted of not quite three divisions. Its loss was 233 killed* and 1,060 wound- ed — making a total of 1,293 men. General Jackson sent tlie following despatch to Gene- ral Lee's adjutant-general, announcing his victory : Headquarters Valley District, 1 August 11, 6J A. M. j Colonel : On the evening of the 9th instant God blessed our arms with another victory. The battle was near Cedar run, about six miles from Culpeper courthouse. The enemy, according to the statement of prisoners, consisted of Banks', McDowell's and.Siegel's commands. We have over four hundred prisoners, including Brigadier-general Prince. Whilst our list of killed is less than that of the enemy, yet we have to mourn the loss of some of our best officers' and men. Brigadier-general Charles S. Winder was mortally wounded whilst ably discharging his duty at the head of his command, which was the advance of the left wing of the army. Wo have collected about 1,500 small arms and other ordnance stores. I am, colonel; your pb't serv't, T. J. Jacksox, Major-general. Col. R. H. Chilton,. A. A. 6. Gerieral Pope telegraphed to Washington news of a " great victory," but as in the case of the ten thousand men taken from Beauregard, he was utterly powerless to show any proof of his boasted achievements. Being satisfied that the enemy were evacuating their position on the Jain§s river, and that the army of Gene- ral McClellan would be sent to the assistance of General Pope, General Lee no longer felt any hesitation in re- moving his army from Richmond. By the 17th of Au- gust he had assembled on the- Rapidan a force of suffi- THOMAS J. JACKSON. " 131 ci'ent strength to enable him to commence operations against Pape. It was necessary for him to act with promptness. The corps' of General Burnside had been ■moved up to Aquia creek, and- McClellan's army was leaving .the James river. He must fight Pope before these forces could reach him. The plan he adopted was a bold one, and would.be attended with considerable risk. But the situation of the country at the time was such as to require boldness and promptness. With the bulk of the army, General Lee would ad- Vance and engage General Pope in front and towards his flanks, while General Jackson's corps was to cross the. mountains, get into Pope's rear, and then marching to Manassas, seize his. lines of communication with Wash- ington and cut off his supplies. The movement assigned to General Jackson. was attended with great risk, as the enemy might, at any time, by a rapid change of position, cut him off from the army of General Lee, and derange the whole plan of the campaign. Resolving, however, to put this. plan into execution, and feeling assured that he could place the fullest reliance. upon General Jackson's ability to execute his portion of it, General Lee began to prepare for the campaign. . • .; The army now advanced to Orange courthouse, and General Pope, suspicious* of danger, retreated across the Rappahannock. This movement caused some modifica- tion'of General Lee's plan of operations. « General Jackson was ordered to gain Pope's rear, and cut him off from Washington, while General Lee, by making a series of feints in the federal commander's front, would draw his attention from the movement of General. Jackson. 132 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL On the 20th of August, General Jackson crossed the Rapidan about eight miles northeast of Orange court- house, and on the evening of the 21st reached Beverly's ford, six miles west of Brandy station on the Orange and Alexandria railroad. At' this point a considerable force of the enemy occupied the left bank of the river. The next day was spent in skirmishing with them ; and late in the day the march was resumed, and on the 28rd of August General Jackson appeared on the bank of the •Rappahannock at the little village of Jeffersonton, oppo- site the Warrenton springs in Fauquier county. General Early's brigade was thrown across the river, but the stream swelling with great rapidity, (owing to heavy rains having fallen recently), the rest of the troops were unable to cross. The situation of Early was perilous in. the ex- treme ; but the enemy did not take advantage of it. The next evening the bridge over the Rappahannock, which the enemy had destroyed, having been completed, Gene- ral Ewell crossed over with Lawton's brigade to Early's assistance. The federals hurriedly massed large bodies of troops at the springs to resist the advance of the con- federates. During the night the brigades of Early and Lawton recrossed the river and rejoined the main column. By hi3 rapid movements along the river, General Jack- son had induced the enemy to believe that he contem- plated a passage of it near the springs : had perplexed ifhem greatly in their efforts to discover the true point where he wished to cross the stream, and had drawn off a large body of troops from the main column. The di- vision of General R. H. Anderson, having come up from Gordonsville, was left to watch and amuse the enemy, who remained drawn up in line of battle at Warrenton THOMAS J. JACKSON. 138 springs all day on Monday 25th. General Jackson, on the. morning of the 25lh, pushed on up the river towards Flint hill, in the county of Rappahannock. The enemy hearing that a large force of confederates was moving towards the mountains, supposed it was the division of General Ewell making a demonstration to cover the re- treat of Jackson, who was* believed to be falling back to Gordonsville. » When the army Imd passed the little village of Amis- ville, it wheeled suddenly to the rightf and moving rap- idly over a rugged and unused road, crossed the Rappa- hannock at Hinson's ford, about fifteen miles above War- renton springs. The passage of the stream was exceed- ingly difficult, and might have been successfully resisted by the enemy, but they had no force there. Avoiding the hills, and marching across fields and lanes, the corps halted for the night near the town of Salem, in Fauquier county, a station on the Manassas gap railroad. The army reached it at midnight, and was on the march again at daybreak. General Jackson had now turned the right flank of the enemy, and was rapidly gaining his rear. The next morning, the 26th, the march was resumed in the direction of Thoroughfare gap, where the Manas- sas gap railroad passes' through the Bull run mountains. Here General Jackson expected to. encounter a portion of the federal troops. Fortunately this strong pass, which a small force of brave men might have held against his whole army, -had been left unguarded, and there was nothing to oppose the march of the confederates. Moving his army rapidly through the gap, General Jackson hur- ried on in the direction of Gainesville, which he reached late in the day. -fl CJ 134 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL General Pope has declared, in his official report, that he was, from the first, fully aware, of all Jackson's move- ments.. If this be true, Generar Pope must have been the greatest simpleton upon record. He left his rear entirely unprotected,, and made no effort •'whatever to re- sist the progress of Jackson, which, he says, was so well known to him, and so " carefully noted." A mere hand- ful of men could have checked, if they could not have prevented, Jackson's advance at aj least half a dozen points. The trrgdi is, however, that the movements of Generel Jackson were so rapid, and the operations of the cavalry under General Stuart, between his corps and the enemy, so completely covered those movements, that General Pope was entirely ignorant of them, until Gene- ral Jackson had fully gained his rear. Arriving at Gainesville, the corps wheeled to the right and marched to Bristow station, on the Grange and Alex- andria railroad,, which was reached after night. The small force and the military stores left there by the enemy were captured. Several trains of cars returning to Washington were also captured. One, however, suc- ceeded in getting by and telegraphed the alarm from Manassas to Alexandria. Those coming from the oppo- site direction returned and gave the alarm. Learning that the enemy had established a large depot of supplies at Manassas, General Jackson ordered Gene- rals Trimble and Stuart to proceed thither at once and occupy the place. By midnight they reached Manassas, and captured the entire force stationed there. At Ma- nassas junction the enemy had established an immense depot of supplies. The confederates' captured an exten- sive bakery, (which was capable of turning out 15,000 THOMAS J. JACKSON- 185 loaves of bread daily;) several thousand barrels of flour ; large quantities of corn and oats ; two thousand barrels of pork; one thousand barrels of beef; fifty thousand pounds of bacon ; several trains of cars with large loads of stores ; and ten first class locomotives. The next day, the 27th, after leaving General Ewell at Bristow, General Jackson occupied Manassas with the rest of his corps. # The federal authorities .at Washington, upon receiving information of the capture of Manassas, supposed that it had been done by a small force, and looked upon the affair as a mere raid. A New Jersey brigade, composed of five regiments, under Brigadier-general Taylor, was sent from Alexandria " to chase the rebels away." *The brigade left the cars at Bull run bridge, about 11 o'clock on the morning of the 27th, and moved rapidly towards the junction. They were allowed to approach within a few hundred yards of the fortifications around the junc- tion; not having met with any enemy save a line of skir- mishers, who retired before them. As they came within range of the heavy guns, a rapid fire was opened upon them, driving them back to a ridge of hills, which shel- tered them from the fatal storm. Throwing forward his infantry, General Jackson drove them from their place of, refuge back^ to Bull run. Crossing that stream at Blackburn's ford, they fled 'towards Centreville, hotly pursued by the cavalry and horse artillery of General Stuart, which inflicted great. loss' upon them. The pur- suit was continued beyond Centreville, the enemy flying in the wildest confusion. The brigade was almost anni- hilated. General Taylor was wounded, and so was nearly every officer in his command. 18G LIEUTENANT-GENERAL General Heintzelman's corps of McClellan's army had reached General Pope's lines, and lay at Rappahannock station, when news was received of the capture of Bris- tow. General Heintzelman had been informed that a "■raid" had been made upon the railroad, but he saga- ciously judged that the movement must be one of great magnitude, and at once advanced with his whole corps to- wards Bristow. A sharp engagement ensued late in the day, in which the enemy were repulsed with considerable loss, and forced back for some distance. The officer in immediate. command of jthe enemy during the attack, was General Joseph Hooker. Not wishing to expose his troops to the danger of being separated when the enemy should advance upon him, General Jackson had ordered General Ewell ..to occupy his position until the enemy should make their appear- ance, and then to check their progress and rejoin the main body of the corps at Manassas. Having checked the advance of the enemy, General Ewell withdrew his troops during the night and rejoined General Jackson. In the meantime, General Lee having been informed of the success of Jackson's movements, had advanced with the remainder of the army to his assistance, intend- ing to throw his entire force in the enemy's rear. Long- street's corps, which had been amusing the enemy during Jackson's march, now swept around from the river and marched towards Thoroughfare gap. Startled by the news that General Jackson had gained his rear, General Pope awoke to a sense of his danger, and prepared to meet it. General Jackson was in .the very heart of the country occupied by the federal troops, cut off, for the time, from all assistance from the army of THOMAS J. JACKSON. 137 General Lee, and in danger of being completely hemmed in by the dense masses of the enemy. His situation was desperate, and to a commander of less genius, might have been fatal. General Pope saw this and resolved to en- deavor to profit by it. Sending Eickett's division to occupy and hold Thoroughfare gap, and thus prevent Jackson from receiving any assistance or effecting a re- treat through it, be moved up from Fauquier with his army, for the purpose of forcing his way through Jack- son's line, and recovering his communications with Wash- ington. The federal army had been reinforced by a por- tion of the troops of General McClellari, and the rest of that army was on the Potomac and on its way to join Pope. Relying upon his great strength, General Pope moved forward with rapidity. His column was advan- cing upon the front of General Jackson, McClellan's troops were approaching in his rear, and Burnside, who was advancing from Fredericksburg, was marching upon his flank. General Jackson's situation was now perilous in the extreme. His forces did not consist of more than 20,000 men, and these were almost broken down by their extraordinary marches, and his supply of food was very short, not exceeding rations for a day and a half. His train was sixty miles off, having been unable to keep up with him in his advance. The head of General Long- street's cqlumn had only arrived at the westerly extremity of Thoroughfare gap, thirty miles distant, and between that column and his own was a federal force of 90,000 men. The enemy had occupied the gap, and it was by no means certain that. General Longstreet would be able to force a passage through it. In this critical situation General Jackson could choose between only two alterna- 18 138 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL tives : either to fight' the enemy and endeavor to hold them in check until General Longstreet could come up, or to retreat to the Valley of Virginia by ay ay of Gen- treville and Leesburg. If he chose the former, he would have to encounter the danger of being overwhelmed and cut to pieces before Longstreet could come up ; if the latter, to run the risk of having his retreat intercepted by the column which was approaching from Alexandria. In either case his condition would be extremely perilous. The enemy were closing in upon him, and it was neces- sary for 1 him to decide at once. The darker the clouds seemed to close around the heroic general, the more bril- liantly did his genius shine out above them, and never was this more strikingly exemplified than at this moment. Without hesitation he resolved to meet the enemy and resist the advance. As soon as General Ewell's division rejoined him, he set fire to the depot and stores captured at Manassas, and moved off m the direction of Bull run, the darkness of the night covering his movements. Upon reaching Bull run, he halted and formed his line near the Sudley church, almost on the very spot that had witnessed the heroic struggle of the 21st July 1861. By this move- ment he brought his forces much nearer to the main body of the enemy under General Pope, but at the same time shortened the distance between himself and General Longstreet. In this position he could fight the enemy the next claj-, and if General Longstreet could be suc- cessful in forcing a passage through Thoroughfare gap, he could fall upon the enemy and assist General Jackson. Or if he should be forced to retreat, he had uoav an open way by wdiich he could move into the Valley. His troops marched all night over a rough and rugged country. The THOMAS J. JAC'KS'(\N. 139 morning of Thursday, the 28th of July, found them drawn up along the banks of Bull run, weary and hungry, and awaiting the advance of the enemy. It seemed that they had caught the spirit of their leader, for in spite of their sufferings, they uttered not a murmur , but eagerly awaited the coming conflict. The right of the line was composed of the 1st division (General Jackson's old division) under General Taliaferro ; the centre of A. P. Hill's division, while Ewell held the left ; the troops facing Manassas junction. In order to reopen his communications with Washing- ton, it was necessary for General Pope to get his army across Bull run and defeat General Jackson. The route he had chosen for the retrograde movement of his army, was over the Stone bridge and the Sudley ford, and Gen- eral Jackson now occupied a position directly in his path. Early on the morning of the 28th, the cavalry under General Stuart, encountered the enemy's .cavalry near Gainesville on the Warrenton turnpike, and drove them back. Later in the day, the 2nd brigade of the 1st di- vision, under Colonel Bradley Johnson, again repulsed them. A heavy column, under Seigel and McDowell, was now advancing upon Jackson's position, and a des- perate encounter was near at hand. General Jackson at once ordered General Taliaferro to advance with his di- vision and attack them. Ewell and A. P. Hill were to follow him, and engage the enemy when they came up with them. General Taliaferro had gone about three miles, when he found that the enemy had abandoned the Sudley road and were advancing upon him from the War- renton turnpike. General Jackson at once moved up his other divisions and formed his line near the little village 140 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL of Groveton ; his right resting above and near the vil- lage, and his left upon the old battle field of Manassas. The action began at five, o'clock in the afternoon, the enemy making the attack in several heavy columns. It was opened by an artillery combat at long range, but gradually the distance between the two armies shortened, and by six o'clock they were within easy musket range of each other. A furious attack was made upon*fclie di- vision of General Taliaferro, and gallantly and success- fully, repulsed. Hill and Ewell now came into action, and the battle became general along the whole line. The federal troops had been informed by their commanders, that Jackson had been " caught in a complete trap" with a small force, and that it was only necessary to make a determined effort, to annihilate him. Inspired by this thought, they fought with great desperation. Several times they advanced to force the Southern lines with the bayonet, but each time were driven back with terrific fury. Night came on, but the battle continued to rage furiously. Gradually the enemy fell back. Finally they abandoned the field, and by nine o'clock the battle Avas over, General Jackson remaining in undisputed possession of the field, having successfully repulsed the enemy at all points. Although the battle had been so severe, General Jack- son's loss was small in proportion .to that of the enemy, being between 800 and 1,000 killed and wounded. But among these were Generals Trimble and Taliaferro, two gallant officers wounded, and the brave old Ewell, whose presence was a tower of strength to the army, lost a leg. The enemy's loss has never been accurately ascertained, but was very heavy. The night passed away in silence, and the troops, THOMAS J^TACKSON'. ' 141 Wearied by fatigue and hunger, spent it in resting upon their arms, awaiting the renewal of the conflict the next day. While the battle was going on near Groveton, stirring events were transpiring in another direction. As soon as General Jackson had gained Pope's rear, General Longstreet had been ordered to move with speed to his assistance. He reached Thoroughfare gap late on the 27th of August, and found it occupied by the enemy. Thoroughfare gap is an abrupt opening in the range of the Bull run "mountains. Its width varies from one hun- dred to two hundred yards. A swift mountain stream rushes through the pass, and along its bank winds a rug- ged -and difficult road and the track of the Manassas gap railroad. On the left hand the mountains rise up per- pendicularly, and on the right the thick timber and un- dergrowth render it impossible for any but the most active men to obtain a foothold upon it. The famous pass of Thermopylae sinks into insignificance when compared with this in strength. That pass was turned by a moun- tain road ; this had no such wea-k point. The force of the enemy occupying it, consisted of General Eickett's division and several batteries of artillery. In spite of the great advantages possessed by the enemy, General Longstreet resolved to drive them from the gap, and pass his troops through it. On the morning of the 28th, he moved forward and engaged them, and during the day succeeded in driving their entire force from the pass. With the thunder of the guns at Grove- ton ringing in their ears, the gallant Southerners emerged from the gap, on the eastern side, and bore away towards Manassas. 142 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL The passage of Thoroughfare gap was one of the most brilliant exploits of the campaign, and reflects the highest credit upon the gallant general and brave men who effected it. It was accomplished with a loss of only three men wounded. Upon arriving within supporting distance of General Jackson, General Longstreet moved to the neighborhood of Sudley church and took position on the left. The plan of General Lee was now nearly accomplished. He had moved his entire army around the enemy and had gotten into their rear. The army had endifred hardships and privations innumerable, but these, so far from de- pressing it, had inspired it with an enthusiasm that was irresistible. The morning of the 29th of August dawned beauti- fully over the scenes of such fearful strife. General Jackson's corps occupied a position a little in advance of that which it had held during the previous evening. All of General Longstreet's forces had not yet come up, and his line was not completely formed. Later in the day all the troops were present, and the lines fully estab- lished. Early in the morning the enemy made a feeble attack upon General Ewell's division, and were quickly repulsed with great slaughter. The confederate artillery opening upon them in their flight, added greatly to their suffer- ings. About four o'clock in the afternoon, General Pope made a desperate attempt to force the Southern lines asunder, and effect a passage through them. The attack was made upon the command of General Jackson, and soon afterwards extended along the whole line. General Lee, late in the afternoon, seeing that the enemy were THOMAS J, JACKSON. 143 receiving strong reinforcments, ordered General Hood (of Longstreet's corps) to move with his division, and make a demonstration upon their right. Hood moved up rapidly and soon became -warmly engaged with the enemy, and when the battle closed, had driven them three-quar- ters of a mile. This movement compelled the federal commander to change his line very materially. Profiting by this assistance, General Jackson advanced his troops with great energy. The battle raged hotly on both wings of the army, and the .enemy fought with great vigor. About nine o'clock they fell back sullenly and left the confederate forces in possession of the field. During the fight the ammunition of Jackson's men gave out. They held their ground, - however, defending themselves with pieces of rock -which lay thickly along their position. To supply their lack of ammunition, the cartridge boxes of wounded and dead friends and foes were secured and emptied, and their contents passed along the line. When. Hood came into the fight, Jackson's men were being slowly pressed back by the overwhelming masses thrown upon them. Hood's charge gave them an oppor- tunity to recover their lost ground, and they were quick to avail themselves of it. The confederate loss was small in proportion to the number engaged and the fierceness of the conflict: The enemy acknowledged a loss of eight thousand killed and wounded. The Northern papers estimated the losses in Pope's army, in the various conflicts previous to the 29th, at nine thousand men, making in ail a total of seventeen thousand men. During the night, General Lee ordered the troops to 144 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL fall back nearer to Manassas plains, intending to take position there and offer the enemy battle the next day. The night was spent by the troops in occupying the po- sitions assigned them. They were greatly in need of rest, and very much weakened by abstinence from food, and yet in this weak and exhausted condition, they were on the morrow to fight the greatest battle that had yet been fought in America. The morning of the ever memorable 30th of August came at last. The confederate army now occupied a po- sition different from any it had yet held. The line of battle extended for over five miles, and was in the form of an. obtuse crescent. Jackson's corps held the left, and his line extended from the Sudley ford, on Bull run, along the partly excavated track of the Manassas inde- pendent line of railroad for a portion of the way, and thence towards a point on the Warrenton turnpike about a mile and a half west of Groveton. The 1st division (now commanded by General Starke) was on the right ; Ewell's division (under General Lawton) in the centre, and A. P Hill on 'the left. From Jackson's right, ex- tended Longstreet's line, which formed the right. wing of the army, stretching beyond the Manassas gap railroad. In the centre, between Jackson's and Longstreet's lines, a strong force of artillery was posted upon an eminence which commanded a large portion of the field. The enemy, in order to engage General Lee, had now to conform his line to that of the Southern army. Con- sequently the federal line took the form of a crescent, the centre (greatly advanced) being at Groveton, and the wings inclining obliquely to the right and left. General Heintzelmuii held the federal riHit and General McDowell THOMAS J. JACKSON. 145- tlie left, while the corps of General Fitz John Porter and Seigel, and Reno's division of Burnside's army, formed the centre. Thus the advantage lay with General Lee. The con- federate army (especially the corps of General Jackson) occupied the ground upon which the enemy fought the first battle of Manassas, and the federal army the ground held by the confederates that day — the positions of the two armies on the 21st being completely reversed on the present occasion. The federal artillery was posted on the hills, in the rear of their infantry. About 12 o'clock M. the battle was opened between the artillery of the two armies — the enemy making the attack. The firing Avas very rapid, and was kept up with great spirit. A little after two o'clock the enemy advanced a strong column of infantry and began a spirited attack upon General Jackson's line. Advancing under the cover of a heavy fire of artillery to "within musket range of the Southern lines, they opened a rapid fire, which was re- sponded to with fatal effect. Shortly after this a second column of the enemy, and then a third, advanced to sup- port the first. Jackson's infantry hurled a deadly fire upon them, and unable to endure it, they repeatedly broke and ran, and it required all of the efforts of their officers to rally them again. Jackson's artillery was now moved to the left, and a destructive fire was opened upon the federal columns. The battle was going on hotly, and the infantry were doing effective service, while the fire of the artillery was terrific. Shot and shell tore through the federal rankb at each discharge, bringing down scores 19 146 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL to the ground, breaking the line of the enemy and throw- ing them into confusion. The order was given to charge, and the infantry sweeping down with great force, drove the bewildered foe from the field at the point of the bayonet. Thus, in half an hour, the forces of Generals Sykes and Morell, the most celebrated corps of the fede- ral army, were driven in confusion from the field by a smaller force of confederates. General Jackson's line, which, it, will be remembered, extended from Bull run to the Warrenton turnpike, had been considerably advanced during this brief engagement. His left, which had pushed forward more rapidly than his right, had moved around by the Pittsylvania house, and was forcing the enemy towards the turnpike and driving them down upon General Longstreet's position ; thus clearly demonstrating the wisdom of General Lee's for- mation of his line of battle. Longstreet was not slow to perceive his advantage. His troops were at once thrown forward, and now the whole line was advancing upon the enemy. The federals were being heavily reinforced, end dense masses of fresh troops were rapidly brought into action. Dashing upon the exposed left flank of the enemy, which was in front of him, General Longstreet, in spite of this, drove them furiously before him. While Longstreet outflanked and drove the enemy on the left, Jackson pressed heavily upon their right. The two wings of the crescent line were gradually drawing nearer together and enclosing the enemy between them. Sweeping upon them in those ir- resistible charges which have become so famous, the vet- erans of Jackson and Longstreet broke the federal col- s' . umns and chased them from the field . Dashing on, at THOMAS. J. JACKSON. 147 the head of his troops, with his whole soul glowing with the genius of battle, General Jackson exhibited the greatest heroism. Under the guidance of such a general, and stimulated by such an example, it is no wonder that his troops were invincible. Long after darkness the battle raged, the enemy being driven at all points, and after nine o'clock they aban- doned the field and fled ingloriously across Bull run. So rapid was their flight, that it was impossible for the eon- federates to keep up with them. General Pope abandoned his wounded without making any provision for them. They were kindly cared for by the confederate commander, until the federals could attend to them. The enemy's loss in this second battle of Manassas was very heavy. The confederate loss was much less, but at present unknown to me. It has been said, and I am convinced of the truth of the assertion, that the enemy's losses on the 27th, -28th, 29th and 30th of Au- gust, numbered thirty -five thousand men. A scanty allowance of food — the first they had eaten for four days, Avas issued to the army on the morning of the 31st. It consisted of beef without bread. The enemy now occupied the heights of Centreville and Germantown, and from these General Lee resolved to dislodge them. General Jackson was ordered to turn their right flank. He set out at two o'clock in the after- noon, and at night encamped in Pleasant valley, fifteen miles from the battle field. Here, for the first time since the march began on the 25th, the men enjoyed an unbro- ken night's rest, and here again they were compelled to go without food. 148 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL On the next day, (September J st), upon nearing the federal lines, General A. P Hill's division was attacked by the enemy, who wished to protect the removal of their trains from Centreville to Alexandria. The battle was fought at Germantown, a small village in Fairfax county, near the main road from Centreville to Fairfax courthouse. The federal troops having been rallied by their comman- ders, marched out from Centreville and fell upon Hill's division, which constituted Jackson's advance. After a short, but desperate fight, they were routed and driven in confusion towards Alexandria, losing many of their num- ber and all of their artillery. Generals -Kearney and Stevens were killed — the former left dead on the field. The confederate loss was very slight. In this brief campaign, the enemy lost upwards of thirty-five thousand men killed, wounded and prisoners, many millions of dollars worth of stores and other pro- perty, over thirty pieces of cannon, and many small arms. The confederate loss was abeut six thousand men. The enemy had been driven into the lines of Washington, and were now trembling for the safety of their capital. The campaign had been, in every respect, brilliant and suc- cessful. On Tuesday, 2nd of September, the corps of General Longstreet came up, and the army for the first time en- joyed a full allowance of food. Having driven the enemy within the lines of Washing- ton, General Lee resolved to cross the Potomac and enter Maryland. Several motives have been attributed to him by the press and public, as inducing him to take this step. The principal of these are — 1st, that he wished to libe- rate and hold the state of Maryland, believing that the THOMAS J. JACKSON*. 149 condition of affairs warranted such a step. Second, that he simply wished to capture the column of federal troops stationed at Harper's Ferry. Much fruitless discussion has been engaged in by the friends of these opposite propositions, and it may seem out of place to mention them here, but for the completeness of this narration it will be necessary to refer to them briefly. This I shall do further on, simply stating here that I accept the lat- ter proposition as embodying the true reason of General Lee for crossing the Potomac. On the 3d of September, General Jackson moved off from Germantown in the direction of Leesburg, and halted for the night at Drainesville. He reached Leesburg the next day. On Friday, the 5th of September, he crossed the Potomac, and took the way to Frederick city in Maryland. The passage of the Potomac was thrilling beyond de- scription. The men sprang forward with wild and en- thusiastic cheers, and were soon over the river and upon the shores of the United States. Each man felt himself the avenger of a wronged and outraged state, and believed that he came to offer to a gallant but enslaved people the prescious boon of liberty. Their anticipations were, how- ever, soon checked by the very cool reception with which they were met. They had believed that men would come crowding into their ranks, and that the. whole population would receive them with open arms. They had entered tfte worst portion of the state, and consequently ought not to have entertained' such bright hopes. Western Maryland, like Western Virginia, was too thoroughly at- tached to the Union to hail with delight the advance of a Southern army. It comprised but a very smajl portion lo[J LIEUTENANT-GENERAL of the state, and all persons who believed then that Gen- eral Lee desired to liberate Maryland, beheld with regret "his entrance into that portion of it. The friends of the South were, with a few exceptions, all east of Frederick county, and the friends of the Union, in and west of it. The few Southern men in the section occupied by the confederate array, not knowing the nature of the invasion, Mere afraid to act at once. To those who know how much they had to dread from the tyranny of the federal government, this will not seem strange. Before reaching Frederick city, General Jackson was presented with a magnificent gray charger. This act, which was prompted by the most enthusiastic admiration for the general, came very near proving fatal to him, for he had scarcely mounted the horse before the animal be- came frightened, threw him, and came near breaking his neck. On Saturday, the 6th of September, the army entered Frederick city. Here they were permitted to purchase such articles as they wanted, for confederate money. On Monday confederate money was refused, and the prices of articles advanced. The troops most scrupulously avoided interfering with the inhabitants, and every right they possessed was most faithfully respected. Persons of known hostility to the South ware treated with great kindness — the conduct of the confederate army being in marked contrast with that of the federal forces, when oc- cupying Southern territory. • On the 8th of September, General Lee issued his pro- clamation, inviting the people of Maryland to rise in de- fence of their homes and liberties. This, however, was impossible, for reasons Avhich will be stated further on. THOMAS J. JACKSOiV, Lftl Only about eight hundred recruits were obtained during this campaign. On Wednesday, the 10th of September, the army moved forward towards Ilagerstown. The greatest ex- citement now prevailed among the troops. They thought they Mere advancing into Pennsylvania, and stimulated by the prospect of visiting upon the enemy in his own country some of the horrors that had been perpetrated upon the South, they pushed on with the greatest delight. At night the corps of General Jackson halted at Boons- boro', on the national road, ten miles from Ilagerstown, while a small party of cavalry, for the purpose of divert- ing the enemy's attention, made a raid into Pennsylvania. The whole North was now thrown into a perfect fever • . . i of excitement. The invasion of Maryland had filled the entire Union with the greatest surprise and terror, and these feelings were heightened by the advance of General Lee in the direction of Ilagerstown. It was rumored that Jackson was entering Pennsylvania by at least a dozen different directions. The routed forces of General Pope had crowded in confusion into the lines of Wash- ington, and mutinous and demoralized, refused to fight again under that general. There was but one man who could brino; order out of such confusion, and that man "was General McGlellan. JNothinfr in the history of the war is more singular than the influence possessed by General McClellan over his troops. During the entire period in which he held the command of the federal army, he was never successful in any of his undertakings. lie was defeated in every pitched battle, and in a majority of the minor engage- ments; driven with loss and in dismay from the Chicka- io2 lilEi'f EKANT-GKJS'LilAi hominy to the James, and outgeneralled upon every occa- sion. Yet in spite of all these misfortunes/ the confi- dence which his troops reposed in him never wavered, and his influence over them never diminished. Undoubt- edly he was the most skilful commander the armies of the Union 'could boast of, but he had the misfortune to contend against Lee,' Johnston and Jackson. The failure of the Peninsula campaign had placed Gen- eral McClellan in bad repute with his government, and it was with great reluctance that they summoned him to the command of the army again. Yielding to the neces- sity of the occasion, they removed General Pope and placed General McClellan at the head of the .army once more. Hastily reorganizing the remnants of Pope's army, and leaving a strong force for 'the protection of Washington city, General McClellan advanced towards Frederick for the purpose of engaging the army of Gen- eral Lee. The skill exhibited by him in this movement won for him considerable praise both North and South. His object in hastening after General Lee was to prevent the invasion of Pennsylvania, or, if necessary, to relieve Harpers Ferry, and by throwing his army between that of General Lee and the Potomac, to cut off his retreat into Virginia. Having resolved upon the capture of Harpers Ferry, General 'Lee began to put his plan into operation. The approach of General McClellan, which was reported to him, rendered it necessary to act with great promptness. The army was divided into three portions — Jackson's and Longstreet's corps, and a strong force under Major-gene- ral D. H. Hill. The column of General D. H. Hill was to occupy the passes of the South mountain and hold K9 THOMAS -J. JACKSON. 15 McClellan in check, while Jackson would reeross the Po- tomac and capture Harpers Ferry. The corps of General Longstreet would remain within supporting distance of both Jackson and Hill, and render assistance to either as necessitv might renuire. On Thursday morning (the 11th September) the corps of General Jackson left Boonsboro' and continued to ad- vance in the direction of Hagerstown. Upon reaching a point about a mile beyond Boonsboro' it suddenly wheeled to the left and marched to the Potomac, which was crossed at Williamsport. On the 12th, the corps entered Martinsburg. The federal forces stationed there had retired to Harpers Ferry, upon hearing of the ap- proach of the confederates. After halting for a few hours to refresh his men,. General Jackson hurried on in the direction of Harpers Ferry, and at noon on the 18th, encamped about three miles from that place. While the corps of General Jackson was to attack Harpers Ferry from the direction of Bolivar, the division of General McLaws was to occupy the Maryland heights, and General Walker's forces to hold those on the Lou- doun side of the bhenancloah, thus completely hemming in the federal forces. As soon as he reached the point at which he halted, General Jackson signalled the heights opposite him in order to ascertain whether the other forces had come up; No reply was received ; and during the day the, signals were repeated, but still remained unanswered, and it was feared that the attempt to occupy the heights had failed. It was known that General McClellan was rapidly ap- proaching the army of General Lee, and it was necessary that the works at Harpers Ferry should be carried a; 20 154 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL once. The day and the night passed away in painful Suspense. The morning of the 14th came, and the sig- nals we're repeated. An answer was returned from the Loudoun heights ; Walker had reached his position ; but nothing was heard from McLaws. Later in the day the signals were again repeated, and McLaws answered from the Maryland heights. He had succeeded, after encoun- tering numerous difficulties, in reaching and occupying the heights, driving the federal force stationed there into the town of Harpers Ferry. General Jackson advanced his troops and invested the town. His line was drawn completely around it, from the Potomac to the Shenan- doah. A. P Hill's division held the right, Swell's the centre, and the 1st (Jackson's) the left. Thus the enemy were completely enclosed within the Southern lines. In order to make a more effectual resistance, the enemy abandoned a number of outworks and retired within their principal defences on Bolivar heights, and the troops- of General Jackson at once occupied the abandoned works. It was now very late in the day, and General Jackson resolved to defer the final assault until, the next morning. At night he sent to Generals McLaws and Walker orders to open their fire upon the town the next morning at sunrise, accompanying them with the following charac- teristic message : " I have occupied and now hold the enemy's first line of entrenchments, and, with the blessing of God, will capture the whole force early in the morning." At sunrise on the morning of the 15th of September, a heavy cannonade was opened upon the enemy's works from all quarters. It was responded to feebly. A little before ten o'clock, General Jackson ordered General A, THOMAS J. JACKSON. 155 P Hill to advance with his division and storm the federal entrenchments. The order was obeyed with alacrity, but just as Hill arrived within two hundred yards of the enemy's works, a white flag was hung out from them. General Hill at once sent forward an aid to enquire the cause of this, and at 10 o'clock received the sword of General White, who had succeeded to the command of the federal troops after the fall of General Miles, who had been mortally wounded during the engagement. The firing ce'ased, and the tyroops entered and took possession of the place. The terms of the surrender accorded by General Jack- son were most liberal. The officers were allowed to re- tain their private property, and they, taking advantage of this privilege, carried off a large portion of the public property, and attempted to take with them a number of negroes, whom they claimed to have brought with them from the North. Many negroes were recognized by their owners, who lived in the surrounding country, and re- covered. Seventeen wagons were loaned the officers to carry off their baggage, and were detained for a long time, and then returned in a very damaged condition. The men were paroled and allowed to depart, and after- wards exchanged. General Jackson captured at Harpers Ferry 11,0^0 troops and Brigadier^eneral White, 73 pieces of artillery, nearly 12,000 small arms, about 200 wagons, and a large amount of supplies, ammunition and clothing. The fed- eral loss in killed and wounded was not very heavy. That of the confederates was very slight. General Jackson modestly announced his victory in the following dispatch ;■ 156 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL Headquarters Valley District, y September 16th, .1862. J Colonel : Yesterday God crowned our arms with another brilliant suc- cess, on the surrender at Harpers Ferry, of Brigadier-general Whito and 11,000 troops, an equal number of small arms, 73 pieces of artil- lery, and about 200 wagons. In addition to other stores, there is a large amount 1 of camp and garrison equipage. 0,ur loss is very small. The meritorious conduct of officers and men wilj be mentioned in a more detailed report. I am colonel, your obedient servant, T. J. Jackson, Major-general. Col. R. H. Chilton, A. A. G. ' • While these events were transpiring at Harpers Ferry, others of equal importance were occurring in Maryland. The column of General D. H. Hill had been left to guard the passes of the South mountain. On the 14th of Sep- tember, General McClellan came up with General Hill and engaged him. Seeing Hill go sorely pressed, and being informed that Harpers Ferry would fall the next day, General Lee moved up with Longstreet's column to his assistance. The enemy were held in check, and du- ring the night the army withdrew towards the Potomac, halting on the banks of the Antjetaui creek, near the village of Sharpsburg. It was expected that Harpers Ferry would fall on the 13th, and if this had been the case, the object of the campaign being accomplished, the army of General Lee could have retired across the Potomac without fighting the battles of Boonsboro' or Sharpsburg. But the obstacles were more formidable than had been anticipated ; and as Harpers Ferry had not fallen when McClellan came up with D. H. Hill, it was necessary to fight him in order to THOMAS J. JACKSON. 151 cover the operations of General Jackson; and upon finding that the federals pressed so closely upon him after leaving Boonsboro', General Lee saw that it would be necessary to fight McClellan again in order to check his advance, and secure a safe passage of the Potomac. He accord- ingly sent orders to General Jackson to join him at once at Sharpsburg. The army had been greatly weakened by sickness and other causes, but especially by the strag- gling of the men, which' had'been indulged in to a shame- ful extent. Over thirty thousand men had been lost to the army in this way, since the march from the Rapidan beg||. On Monday, General Jackson received General Lee's order to join him. McLaws and Walker, with then- forces, crossed over to Harpers Ferry ; A. P Hill's di- vision was left to hold the place until the captured arti- cles could be removed, and in the afternoon the corps began the march up the river to rejoin General Lee.* On Thursday, the 16th, General Jackson with bis own and Ewell's divisions reached the army on the Antietam and disposed his forces to take part in the approaching " :; " Colonel Ford, an officer of the federal army, relates the following incident which occurred at Harpers Feriy : '■While we were in conversation," he says, " an orderly rode rap- idly across the bridge and said to General Jackson, 'I am ordered. by General McLaws to report to you that. General McClellan is within six miles with an immense arm}'.' Jackson took -no notice of the orderly apparently, and continued his conversation ; but when the orderly had turned away, Jackson called after him with the question, ' Has McClellan any baggage train or drove of cattle ?' The reply was that he had. Jackson remarked that he could whip any army that was followed by a flock of cattle, alluding to the hungry condi- tion of his men.'' 158 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL battle. The rest of his command were hurrying on, but had not yet come up. General Lee's army was drawn up on the Antietam creek, a small stream near the town of Sharpsburg. The town lies in a deep valley, through which winds the creek. On the east is a high mountain ridge, running nearly from North to South. The country is very undulating, The right wing of the army^ under General Longstreet, rested at the base of the mountain ridge ; the centre, under General D. H. Hill, at Sharpsburg, and the left, (consisting of his two divisions) under General Jackson, about a mile to the left of the town. ^ The enemy appeared in front of General Lee's posi- tion about three or four o'clock on Monday afternoon, but made no attack. Tuesday was spent by General McClel- lan in massing his troops on his right for the purpose of endeavoring to turn the confederate left flank. Late on Tuesday evening, heavy skirmishing occurred between the two armies. On the eve of a great battle, General Lee's effective force did not number thirty-five thousand men, and of these, three divisions (McLaws, A. P Hill and Walker) were yet to come up. The enemy had over one hundred thousand of his best troops. At three o'clock on the morning of the 17th of Sep- tember, the troops were under arms. At daylight the pickets commenced skirmishing. Soon after this the enemy opened a heavy artillery fire upon the confederate position, and the battle had fairly begun. Between six and seven o'clock, the main body of the enemy was hurled with terrific force against Ewell's division (under Lawton) in a desperate attempt to turn the confederate THOMAS J. JACKSOH. 159 left flank, and from this division the fight extended to Jackson's own. The Southern troops were largely out- numbered, but fought with great efficiency. The enemy had concentrated his best troops for his attempt to turn General Lee's left, and for two hours and a half the battle raged with varying success. Large numbers had been lost on both sides, and finally Ewell's hardy vete- rans, borne down by superior numbers, began to give way. At this moment, Hood, who had been ordered to General Jackson's assistance, dashed into the fight, and the troops of General Lawton rallying quickly, a fresh stand was made against the enemy, and soon the federal col- umns were driven back. Receiving reinforcements, they again forced the confederates to retire, having succeeded by mere superiority of numbers in outflanking General Jackson, whose men retired slowly, hotly contesting every inch of ground. Eight federal batteries were now in full play upon the troops under General Jack- son, while huge swarms of Northern infantry pressed heavily upon them. McLaws had just come up, and General Lee ordered him to Jackson's assistance. As McLaws brought up 'his division, Jackson's men were nearly exhausted and almost out of ammunition. Bring- ing his reinforcements into action with a skilful hand, and advancing his whole line, General Jackson swept down upon the enemy with impetuosity and drove them before him at all points. For half an hour longer the battle raged furiously, and then the enemy began to. re- treat. They were driven from the field, and at one point pursued for nearly a mile. The engagement ,on the left ceased at half-past ten o'clock, and was not renewed by the enemy during the day. They contented themselves 160 TAETTTENAXT-GENERAL with endeavoring to prevent General Jackson from driving back their lines from their original position. Soon after the close of the fight on the left, the fede- rals attacked General D. H. Hill's position at Sharps- burg. Previous to this, an artillery fight, which com- menced at sunrise, had been going on at this point. About 12 o'clock a column of federal infantry crossed the Antietam, and advanced upon the confederate centre, while other troops were hurried over the creek to the as- sistance of the first column. The confederate artillery receiving the fire of the fed- eral guns without returning it, directed tbeir attention to the infantry, and uniting their efforts with those of the Southern infantry, drove back assault after assault, in- flicting heavy losses upon the enemy. Finally they were driven back- in confusion actoss the Antietam. It was now 1 o'clock in the afternoon, and a lull in the" battle occurred, which lasted for two hours. At 3 o'clock the approach of A. P Hill with the v rest of Jackson's forces was announced. The confederate force on the extreme right did not now exceed six thousand men, while the enemy were seen approaching, about fifteen thousand strong, to attack it. Charging in one solid mass, they endeavored, by their great weight, to break and drive back the Southern line. In this they were well nigh successful. The artillery poured a destructive* fire into their ranks, but filling up the gaps they dashed on with spirit. The Southern infantry resisted their ad- vance right manfully, but at last, having fired their last cartridge, began to give way. It was 4 o'clock, and the fate of the day was trembling in the balance. At this moment- A. P Hill, the Blucher of the day, clashed for- THOMAS J. JACKSON. 161 •ward -with his hardy veterans, and throwing them upon the enemy, engaged them in an obstinate conflict, which, about 6 o'clock, resulted in the federals being driven, with broken and shattered ranks, back over the Antie- tam. Night coming on, the battle ended. The enemy had been driven back at all points, and the confederates were left in possession of the field. The confederate loss in this battle was about 7,000 men, including Generals Starke and Branch killed, and Generals Anderson, Lawton, Wright, Ripley and Armis- tead wounded. The enemy lost about 25,000 men, in- cluding Generals Hooker, Hartsuff, Duryee, Richardson, Sedgwick, French, Sumner, Dana, Meagher, Ricketts, "Weber and Rodman wounded. They claimed to have won a great victory. This, as has been seen, was untrue. They were defeated at every point. On Thursday morning the enemy were not to be found'. They had abandoned their position during the night, and had withdrawn a short distance from the field. During the day several*" flags of truce" came in from che enemy, asking permission to bury the dead. The requests were refused, because they did not come from general McClel- lan. All of the wounded, except tb^se who were too badly hurt to be removed, were carried from the field, and the army remained in possession of the battle ground during the entire day. At ni^ht General Lee withdrew his troc-ps, and, recrossing tie Potomac, retired into Vir- ginia. In order to defend his passage of the Potomac, Gene- ral Lee placed General Pendleton, with forty or' fifty pieces of artillery and three brigades of infantry, at Boteler's- mill,- near Shepherdstown, on the right bank- of 21 162 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL the river. After the army had crossed, this force, sup- ported by another, all under General A. P Hill, was left to watch the enemy, while the main body of the army retired a few miles beyond Shepherdstown, On Friday, the 19th, the enemy appeared in large force, on the opposite side of the river, and wishing to decoy them over, General Hill withdrew his main body from sight and left a very weak force confronting them. On the next day, (Saturday the 20th of September), the federal commander crossed a large column and made an effort to .capture the little band. As soon as the enemy had gotten fairly over, General Hill advanced his troops, and falling suddenly upon them, drove them across the river with great slaughter. So great was their confusion and fright, that, although the river was scarcely more than knee deep, many were drowned in crossing. The confederates poured a withering fire into them, and the river was, in many places, literally black with their corpses, and, it is said, the water was red with their blood for a mile below the ford. The enemy lost 2,500 men, and the confederates 250. After recrosaing the Potomac, General Lee withdrew his army to Marfinsburg qpd began the work of reor- ganization. Stragglers were picked up and brought in, and the army gradually resumed its former proportions. The campaign in Maryland had been eminently suc- cessful. In commencing t\e narration of it, I asserted that it was General Lee's object to capture the federal force at Harpers Ferry. If this assertion is true, it is impossible to deny that the campaign was successful. But if it was his object to liberate the state of Maryland, the campaign was a failure. In the absence of official infor- THOMAS J. JACKSON. 163 mation, we can only speculate upon the probable designs of General Lee ; but with the existing facts before us, I think we can arrive at a very fair estimate of his inten- tions in invading the state of Maryland. When his army reached Pleasant Valley, General Lee had a choice of two routes leading into- Maryland: he could cross the Potomac either near Seneca falls, or in the neighborhood of Poolsville. By crossing at the for- mer place he would be nearer Washington, and by a rapid march would be enabled to seize the only railroad leading to the city, and cut off its communications with the North. If forced to retreat, the way was open through Montgomery county. He would then be in a portion of Maryland where he would be surrounded by friends, and where thousands would flock to his standard. He could, in case of necessity, aid the city of Baltimore and Lower Maryland in throwing off the federal yoke ; and if he could hold the army of General Pope within the lines of Washington, he would have every reason to hope for success. But if he should enter the state by the latter route, he would be in a section hostile to him, far removed from the federal capital and the friends of the South, and with a large federal army between him- self and Southern Maryland. The liberation of Mary- land must necessarily be a slow process and accompanied with very great risk. In the present condition of affairs, the South was not prepared to attempt it. But a tempt- ing prize lay within the grasp of the confederate com- mander. The stronghold of Harpers Ferry, with its large garrison and immense quantities of stores, might, by a bold movement be captured, The garrison would thus, for a time, be lost to the federal service, and the 164 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL stores, of which the South stood greatly in need, secured to her. To capture Harpers Ferry General Lee resolyed, and for this purpose the army entered Maryland. At Frederick city, General Lee issued a proclamation, inviting the Marylanders to rise in defence of their lib- erties. An accomplished writer, "who is not an admirer of General Lee, says that " Ms proclamation at Fred- erick, offering protection to the Marylanders, is incon- trovertible evidence of the fact that the object of the campaign was to occupy and hold the state." I admit that at first this seems to be true. But a closer exami- nation of the subject must convince every unprejudiced person that this proclamation affords no such evidence. In it General Lee no where asserts his intention to occupy and hold the state. He says the people of the South sympathize with Maryland, and wish to see her freed from the tyranny of her foes, and adds : "In obedience to this wish our army has come among you and is pre- pared to assist you with the power of its arms in regain- ing the rights of which you have been deprived." In this announcement I can no where see the assertion of a determination to liberate the state or to occupy and hold it. General Lee states that the army is " prepared to assist" the people, but does not say that it is his pur- pose to remove the federal yoke from Maryland. It was necessary for the army to place the Marylanders in a condition to rise before they could avail themselves of the offer ; and this had not been done. Of course, if they should rise against the federals, it would be a great gain for General Lee. I do not think he expected them to rise, and I am convinced that his proclamation was issued for the purpose of deceiving the enemy as to his THOMAS J. JACKSOK. 165 real intentions — a measure which he could embrace with perfect propriety. The permanent occupation of Mary- land would have been of incalculable value to the South, but what good would have resulted from the occupation of the western portion of it, sixty miles from Baltimore, with a large hostile army between Washington and Fred- erick, I am at a loss to discover. The proclamation, which those who pronounce this campaign "a failure," hold up as such "incontrover- tible evidence" of the truth of that assertion, was issued on the 8th of September 1862. On the morning of the 10th, the army left Frederick £nd moved towards Ha- gerstown, thus increasing the distance between itself and Washington and its friends, but drawing nearer to Har- pers Ferry. Surely General Lee could not expect his proclamation to be scattered through the state, and the friends of the South to flock to him from a distance vary- ing from sixty to one hundred and twenty miles, in the short space of two days. And if he had wished them to rise, why should he have moved his army farther from them. It is certainly more reasonable to suppose that in this case he would have moved nearer to Washington, and either have crossed the Monocacy himself, or have prevented the passage of it by the army of General Mc- Clellan, which, he knew, was preparing to advance upon him. Every movement of his army was towards Harpers Ferry, and affords "incontrovertible evidence" that it was his object to capture that place. Of the events which would have followed the capture of Harpers Ferry, I am, «of course, unprepared to speak ; but I do not believe that General Lee expected to fight either at Boonsboro' or Sharpsburg. The delay in the capture of 166 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL Harpers Ferry, necessitating a protection of Jackson's operations, and the rapid advance of McClellan, forced him to fight at those places, and added new laurels to the wreath that already encircled his hrow. The assertion of the enemies of General Lee, must, therefore, fall, to the ground, when opposed by a fair and unprejudiced statement of facts. In support of my argument, I append the 'following extract from a letter written to the London " Times," by a correspondent, who was furnished by General Lee him- self with such information, as it was proper to reveal, concerning the campaign. He says : " It is generally stated that the confederate authorities calculated upon a rising in Maryland directly their army entered that state. Nevertheless, everybody to whom I, spoke on the subject ridiculed the idea of ever having thought that any such rising would ever take place* until either Baltimore was in their hands, or they had at least established a position in that country, as it was well known that the inhabitants of Washington and Frederick counties were far from being unanimous in their opinions, and that in many districts there, the unionists were con- siderably in the majority." After remaining in* Martinsburg a short time, General Lee removed his army to Winchester. The enemy occu- pied Harpers Ferry and the left bank of the Potomac as far as Williamsport, occasionally throwing bodies of troops into Virginia. General Jackson was once more in the Valley of Vir- ginia, and had redeemed the promise made to the'people of Winchester when he left it the last time, that " Tie zvould return again shortly, and as certainly as noiv." THOMAS J. JACKSON. 16T That coming had long been -watched for by both friend and foe. Once when he was moving upon Pope at Cedar run, the enemy at Winchester had been startled by the report that he was moving rapidly down the Valley, and had been filled with dismay at the prospect of meeting him. He. had come again to the Valley bearing the laurels of nearly half a score of victories won since he left it. He came only once more — never to leave it. While the army lay at Winchester, General Jackson .was charged with the duty of watching the enemy. About the middle of October, General McClellan crossed his army at Harpers Ferry and Williamsport, and moving forward, occupied Charlestown in Jefferson county, and Kearneysville on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Se- vere skirmishing occurred along the lines daily. On the 17th of October the enemy moved forward from the Po- tomac towards Martinsburg. General Jackson at once advanced upon them and drove them rapidly across the the river. Remaining with his command for some time in the neighborhood of the Potomac, he inflicted great damage upon the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, tearing up the track and burning bridges. That portion of the road extending from Sir John's run, in Morgan county , to a point within a few miles of Harpers Ferry, a dis- tance of about forty miles, was entirely destroyed. General McClellan lay idly watching General Lee until late in October. His forces were more numerous and better equipped than those of the confederate commander, but he had suffered too severely from Lee's skill and the bravery of his troops, to wish to attack him again. The federal government sent General McClellan repeated 168 LIEUTENANT-GENEBAL orders to advance upon General Lee, but he contrived to evade the execution of them, knowing that his safety lay in inaction. At last, having received peremptory orders to advance, he moved the main body of his army east of the Blue Ridge, sending the corps of General Burnside in advance. His object was to seize the passes of the Blue Ridge, hold the army of General Lee in check, and force that officer either to remain in the Valley or to pass the mountains nearer to Staunton, while he would send a strong column to attack Richmond. The plan was well laid, but not deep enough to baffle the penetration of General Lee. Scarcely had McClellan put his troops in motion, when Longstreet's corps .passed the Blue Ridge and moved towards Culpeper. General Jackson was left behind to watch McClellan, to prevent him from occu- pying the mountain passes, and to check any pursuit of Longstreet that might be attempted. McClellan pressed on. General Jackson moving his forces from point to point, confused him as to his inten- tions, and prevented him from occupying the gaps through which he desired to pass his own troops. Baffled by the superior skill of Jackson, and finding that Lee had out- generalled him again, McClellan began massing his troops in the region of Culpeper. The federal army continued to move on and reached Warrenton. Here General Mc- Clellan was deprived of his command by his government, and was succeeded by General Burnside. General Burnside finding that General Lee was deter- mined to prevent him from passing the upper Rappahan- nock, resolved to move his army lower down, cross the river at Fredericksburg, and throw himself between Rich- mond and General Lee. He at once began to move* his THOMAS J. JACKSON. 169 army down the Rappahannock, hoping by attracting Lee's attention in another direction to accomplish this move- ment in secrecy. But General Lee was watching him closely, and as soon as he was satisfied as to the inten- tions of the federal commander, .moved his army rapidly towards Fredericksburg. General Sumner commanded the advanced corps of General Burnside's army, and when he arrived opposite Fredericksburg, demanded of the mayor and council the surrender of the place. This was on the 21st of No- vember. The city authorities, acting under instructions from General Lee, refused to comply with the demand. General Burnside hurried forward with the remainder of his army, but when he reached the hills of Stafford, op- posite Fredericksburg, found the army of General Lee occupying the heights in the rear of the town.* General Burnside determined to make the Rappahan- nock his base of operations against Richmond, and for- tified his position. The hills in the rear of Fredericks- burg were strongly fortified by the confederates, and for some time the two armies lay watching each other. General Lee being satisfied as to the intentions of General Burnside, directed General Jackson's corps to join him. General Jackson left the Valley about the 1st of De- *Wben the demand for the surrender of Fredericksburg was re- ceived, the federal commander was asked for time to obtain an an- swer from General Lee. General Sumner replied that the request" could not be granted — '•'• the delay would be too great.; General Lee •?7&3 at least a hundred miles away." When he was informed that Genb.-a: Lee's forces were but three mites from the town, he seeaaed^ overwhelmed with astonishment. 22 170 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL cember, and by a rapid march, reached Fredericksburg soon afterwards. On the 11th of December, General Burnside crossed the Rappahannock and occupied Fredericksburg. The army of General Lee was posted on the hills which lie in the rear of the town, and which enclose it in almost a semi-circle, the centre being about four miles from the river. The country between the hills and the river is to a great extent open and very little broken. Immediately above the town and on the left of the con- federate position, the bluffs are bold and without trees or undergrowth. As the range of hills extends to the east- ward, the elevation decreases, and they become more thickly wooded. The left was within rifle range of the town, and by far the strongest point of the line. The centre and right were weaker, the enemy enjoying many advantages in attacking them of which they were de- prived on the left. The left was held by General Long- street's corps, while Jackson was posted on the right. The order of the various divisions, proceeding from left to right, was as follows : " Anderson's on the extreme left, afterwards Ransom's, McLaws', Pickett's and Hood's — ■ these comprising Longstreet's corps ; then A. P. Hill's and Taliaferro's of Jackson's corps. The cavak-y under General Stuart were posted on the extreme right of the line, which stretched along the hills from Fredericksburg (on the left), to the Massaponax creek (on the right). Ewell's (now under Early) and D. H. Hill's divisions had been stationed near Port Royal to prevent a passage of- the river at that point by the enemy, and as soon as Burnside revealed his intentions, were ordered back. They reached the field about 9 o'clock on the morning of THOMAS J. JACKSON. 171 the battle, and took position on the right to act as a sup- port to the rest of Jackson's corps. • About 9 o'clock on the morning of the 13th of De- cember, the enemy advanced a heavy column, estimated at 55,000 strong, to attack General Jackson's position, their movement being partially concealed by a heavy fog that overhung the entire field, but which was gradually lifting. General A. P Hill had been posted with his division at Hamilton's crossings — the centre of the con- federate line — and upon this point the federal attack was directed. As soon as the enemy were seen approaching, General Stuart moved forward his horse artillery under Major Pelham, and opening an enfilading fire, upon them, doing great execution. At the same time the troops of General Hill became hotly engaged. The confederates had the advantage in position, but the enemy greatly outnum- bered them. Twice the enemy furiously assailed General Jackson's position. About one o'clock two of Hill's brigades were driven back upon his second line, and the enemy succeeded in occupying a portion of the woods on the crest. But their success was of short duration, for Early hurrying, forward with a part of his division, fell upon them with fury, drove them from the hill and across the plain below, and only ceased his pursuit when his men came under the fire of the federal batteries. The right of the enemy's column, extending beyond Hill's front, took possession of a copse of woods in front of the position of General Hood, but were quickly driven from it with loss. Soon after the repulse of the attack on the right, the enemy made a furious charge upon the Southern left 172 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL under General Longstreet. They approached gallantly — the Irish division being in the advance. These troops fought with desperation, but in vain. From Marye's hill, Walton's guns and McLaws' infantry hurled a fearful fire upon them, and swept them back with torn and shattered ranks into the town. About dark, the enemy made a last assault upon the hill, supported by a terrible fire from the federal batteries on the opposite side of the river. They were again repulsed and driven into. the town. The losses sustained by the enemy in these several attacks were very great, and the remnants of that splendid army, which had so vauntingly crossed the Rappahan- nock, crowded at night into Fredericksburg in the great- e3t demoralization, and confusion. They ran through the streets and cowered in the cellars, positively refusing to go back to the field again. Had General Lee opened his guns upon the town that night, a perfect massacre and the destruction of the greater portion of the federal army would have ensued. The next day General Burnside gave orders for a sec- ond advance upon the confederate lines, but the troops refused to obey them ; and his general officers represent- ing this to him, induced him to recall his orders. The day was spent in burying the dead and caring for the wounded. On Monday, the 15th, the enemy continued in Fredericksburg, but made no demonstration, and at night, under the cover of a severe storm, recrossed the river. The confederate loss in this engagement was about 1,800, including Generals T. R. R. Cobb and Gregg. The enemy's loss has been estimated at from twenty to twenty-five thousand men, including Generals Bayard THOMAS J. JACKSON. ■ 173 and Jackson killed, and several generals wounded, and 1,626 prisoners. During the battle, General Jackson was conspicuous for his gallantry. Just before the action began, he rode along the lines dressed in a handsome new uniform, the gift of a friend. It was his habit to dress very plainly, and his men had grown accustomed to watch for their gen- eral just before a battle began, never failing to recognize him by the old slouched hat and the faded gray uniform, when too far off to distinguish 'his features.' Never before had they failed to shout until the heavens rung, when they saw him. approach. Now they glanced carelessly at the officer in the handsome uniform, and gazed impa- tiently »up and down the lines, wondering why " Old Stonewall" did not appear. After he had passed them, it became known to them that the officer in the fine uni- form was their general, and they gave vent to many ex- clamations of regret at having suffered him to pass them without cheering him. It is related of him, that a§ the action began, he was standing by General Lee,, watching the advance of the enemy. The gallant Pelham was bravely contending against a heavy fire from the federal batteries. Turning to General Jackson, General Lee exclaimed : " It is inspiriting to see such glorious courage in one so young." General Jackson replied in his quiet, firm way : " With a Pelham upon either flank, I could vanquish the world." Shortly after this, General Longstreft asked him, smilingly, as he pointed to the federal column which was approaching to attack the right : 174 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL " Are you not scared by that file of yankees you have before you, down there ?" "Wait till they come a little nearer," replied General Jackson, " and they shall either scare me, or I'll scare them.". At a critical period of the engagement, General Lee sent an aid* with an order to General Jackson. The offi- cer was searching for him in the midst of a heavy fire from the enemy, when he heard some one exclaim : " Dismount, sir ! dismount ! You will certainly be killed there !" Glancing around, he saw General Jackson lying fiat upon his back on the ground, while the balls were whist- ling all around him. Alighting, he gave him General Lee's order. Making the officer lie down by him, Gene- ral Jackson read the message, and turning over wrote a reply. Handing it to the aid, he resumed his original position in the coolest and most unconcerned manner imaginable. During this batt]e there was witnessed a spectacle, which, although it was now so familiar to the men, was unsurpassed by any 'seen that day. Eiding forward a short distance in front of the army, and uncovering his head, and raising his eyes to heaven, General Jackson prayed the God of battles to be with the army that day. The troops looked on with softened hearts, and it would have fared badly with the wretch who could have dared to make light of such a scene in the presence of one of Jackson's men. After the battle of Fredericksburg, the' army continued to hold its -position on the hills, awaiting the advance of the enemy. General Jackson busied himself in looking THOMAS J. JACKSON. 175 after his men and trying to make them comfortable. He also availed himself of this opportunity to prepare his official reports of his campaigns. During the second session of the first congress, (early in 1863), the president was authorized to confer upon a certain number of officers of the army the rank of lieu- tenant-general. As soon as this law was passed, the president conferred upon General Jackson (among others) the new rank. Late in April, the movements of General Hooker, now in command of the federal army, began to assume a sig- nificant character, and it became evident that a great battle was soon to be fought. One evening late in April, General Jackson was con- versing with a member of his staff, and giving his rea- sons for believing that a great battle was at hand. As the conversation progressed, he became unusually excited. Suddenly pausing, he was silent for some moments, and then said humbly and reverently, " My trust is in God." Then, the true spirit of the warrior rising within him, he raised himself to his full height, and exclaimed proudly, while his noble features glowed with enthusiasm — " I wish they would come !" Having determined to cross the Rappahannock, Gene- ral Hooker began to put his plan into execution. On the 28th of April he crossed a column under General Sedg- wick, at Deep run below Fredericksburg, and in front of General Early's position. After severe skirmishing, Early forced this column to remain close to the shore of the river. Hoping to divert General Lee's attention to the column at Deep run, and thus conceal his own move- ments, General Hooker, after leaving a strong corps at 176 Lieutenant-general Falmouth, moved bis main army about twenty-five miles up the Rappahannock, and crossed the river. The column at Deep run was then withdrawn to the Stafford side. It was General Hooker's intention to occupy a strong posi- tion above Fredericksburg, and thus force. General Lee either to submit to an attack in his rear, or to leave his works on the Spotsylvania hills and come out and fight him in the open field, where, he hoped that his superior numbers would give him the victory. As soon as General Lee should advance to meet him; Sedgwick was to cross the river at Fredericksburg and fall upon Lee's flank. In order to cut off General Lee's communications with Richmond and deprive him of assistance. General Stone- man, with the federal cavalry, was to fall suddenly upon the Fredericksburg and Central railroads, destroy them, and then do what other damage he could. About noon on the 29th of April, General Lee was informed that a large force of the enemy had crossed the Rappahannock at Kelly's and Ellis' fords, and were press- ing towards Ely's and Germanna fords on the Rapidan. Two small brigades of Anderson's division (Posey's *nd Mahone's) had been stationed for some time at these points to guard the approaches to Fredericksburg. Un- able to stand before the pressure of Hooker's heavy columns, they retired to Chancellorsville, where they de- termined to make a stand. General Wright was at once- ordered to their assistance, and reached Chancellorsville at daylight on the morning of the 30th. General An- derson had come up during the night, and having received more accurate information respecting the strength of the enemy, determined to fall back to a point five miles r ; esre? Fredericksburg, where the read leading from 'Uni- THOMAS J. JACKSON. 177 ted States ford, (called the old Mine road) crosses the Orange and Fredericksburg plank road. This point was reached about 8 o'clock in the morning, and General An- derson, disposing his forces in line of battle, resolved to hold his position until he could receive assistance from General Lee. His force consisted of scarcely more than five thousand men, while Hooker brought with him nearly his whole army. The enemy halted at Chancellorsville. The position held by the army of Gejieral Hooker was very strong* ' His left rested at Chancellorsville, while his right stretched away towards Wilderness creek. Chancellorsville consists of one large brick house, and is situated about «fifteen miles west of Fredericksburg and four miles southwest of the Rapidan, at the point where the main road from Ely's ford falls into the plank road. About four or five miles west of Chancellorsville, is a rugged country covered with a thick, tangled and apparently impenetrable growth of stunted oaks, called the Wilderness. Scattered here and there through this Wilderness are cleared spots, varying in size from fifty to one hundred acres. Through the midst of these woods winds a narrow and tortuous road. Upon the cleared spots General Hooker erected strong breastworks, and behind them posted his artillery and infantry. To ap- proach these works, an attacking force must Either ad- vance by the road,, which could be swept by. the artillery, or force their way through the woods. A stronger posi- tion could not have been chosen, and it is no wonder Gen T eral Hooker considered it "impregnable." Strong in- trenchments had also been thrown up in the vicinity of Chancellorsville, and, thus prepared, General Hooker felt confident of success. 23 178 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL As soon as he heard of General Anderson's situation, General Lee ordered General Jackson to leave one divi- sion of his corps to hold the works at Fredericksburg, and to march with the other three (A. P. Hill's, under that general's command ; D. H. Hill's, under General Rodes ; and Trimble's under General Colston) to Ander- son's position, to take command of Anderson's and part of McLaws' divisions, and " attack and repulse the enemy." Leaving Early's division before Fredericksburg, he reached Anderson's position the next morning. Ander- son's division was placed in front, and two brigades of McLaws' division sent forward on the^United States' ford road. Posey's, Wright's, and shortly afterwards Ran- seur's brigades were formed in line of battle on both sides of the road, at the head of the column, and the com- mand advanc'ed towards the enemy. As General Jackson approached Chancellorsvilie, some slight skirmishing occurred between his advanced forces and those of the enemy. The day was now far advanced, and General Jackson, ordering a halt, spent the rest of the afternoon in bring- ing up his command and assigning them to the positions they were to occupy the next day. General Lee arrived at night, and the plan of opera- tions for the.coming day was arranged. -It was necessary to act promptly. Sedgewick was hovering suspiciously <about Fredericksburg, and might at any moment drive back the little force left to check him, and advance to Hooker's assistance. It was impossible to gain anything by an attack upon Hooker's front, as- its great strength would enable a very small force to hold it. General THOMAS J. JACKSON. 179 •Jackson proposed to move his corps to the left, attack Hooker's right and force it back upon Chancellorsville, and General Lee gave his sanction to the proposition. The night was quite cool. Seeing General Jackson without covering or protection of any kind, one of his aids offered him his cape, and after much persuasion in- duced him to accept it. During the night he was fearful that the young man might take cold from being deprived of his cape, and rising softly, threw it over him as he lay asleep, and then lying down again, passed the night with- out any thing around him. This produced a cold, which afterwards resulted in pneumonia. He was always careful of the comfort of others, even at the sacrifice of h% own. Early the next morning General Jackson began his movement upon the federal right flank. General Fitz Lee's brigade of cavalry was thrown towards the front and between the column of General Jackson and. the enemy. This gallant cavalier successfully covered the movements of General Jackson and prevented the enemy from gaining any information respecting them. General Jackson took with him only the three divisions he had brought with him from Fredericksburg, and moved rapidly towards the left to a point called the " Furnace." From the " Furnace" he marched still farther to the left, and passing around the federal right flank, moved through the tangled undergrowth of the Wilderness until he reached Germanna ford on the Rapidan. He was now completely in the rear of the enemy, and his presence was entirely unsuspected by them. . Ascending a hill in the vicinity, he obtained an excel- lent view of the enemy's position, and hastening to his command, prepared to attack the enemy. 180 LIEUTBNAN1-GENJ5RAL The road by which he determined to advance upon them was the old turnpike, which led directly to the fed- eral rear. Rode's division was formed in line of battle in front ; Hill followed at a distance of three hundred yards, and Colston marched behind Hill at the same dis- tance from him. The undergrowth was so thick, that Hill's and Colston's commands were afterwards marched in column along the road, and only Rodes advanced in line of battle. The ground was so swampy, that the ar- tillery was forced to march in column on the road. Marching rapidly down the old turnpike, General Jack- son extended his line to the left, intending to cut off the federal forces from the United Stat.es fords and crush them. The enemy's force on his right consisted of the elev- enth army corps, under General Howard — formerly com- manded by Seigel. They were strongly posted. Up to this moment the federals had received no inti- mation of General Jackson's approach, and his attack took them completely by surprise, and filled them with dismay. Moving forward rapidly, General Jackson made a furi- ous assault upon the federal line and swept it fiercely before him. The suddenness and impetuosity of the attack demoralized the enemy, and in a short time a whole army corps was routed. A yankeq correspondent of a New York paper ? thus describes the scene : " The flying Germans came dashing over the field in crowds, stampeding and running as only men do run when convinced that sure destruction is awaiting them. I must confess that I have no ability to do justice to the scenes THOMAS J. JACKSON'. 181 that followed. It was my lot to be in the centre of the field when the panic burst upon us. May I never be a witness to another such scene. On one hand was a solid column of infantry retreating at double-quick ; on the other was a dense mass of human beings who were flying as fast as their legs could carry them, followed up by the rebels pouring their murderous volleys upon us, yelling and hooting .to increase the confusion ; hundreds of cav- alry horses, left riderless at the first discharge from the rebels, dashing frantically about in all directions ; scores of batteries flying from the field ; battery wagons, ambu- lances, horses, men, cannon, caissons, all jumbled and tumbled together in one inextricable mass — and the mur- derous fire of the rebels still pouring in upon them ! To add to the terror of the occasion, there was but one means of escape from the field, and that through a little narrow neck or ravine washed out by Scott's creek. Towards this the confused mass plunged headlong. For a moment it seemed as if no power could avert the fright- ful calamity that threatened the entire army. On came the panic-stricken crowd — terrified artillery riders spur- ring and lashing their horses to their utmost ; ambulances upsetting and being dashed to pieces against trees and stumps ; horses dashing over the field ; men flying and crying with alarm — a perfect torrent of passion appa- rently uncontrolable. The meu ran in all directions. They all seemed possessed with an instinctive idea of the shortest and most- direct line from the point whence they started to the United States mine ford, and the majority of them did not stop till they had reached the ford. Many of- them, on reaching the fiver, dashed in and swam to the north side, and are supposed to be running yet." 182 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL The federal right was now being doubled up on its left at Chancellorsville, and it was necessary to press forward without delay. A. P. Hill's division was thrown forward to relieve Rodes, whose men had become greatly exhausted by their march through the Wilderness. Hill was ordered to form his men on both sides of the road and advance upon the enemy. He was directed to refrain from firing " unless cavalry approached from the direction of the enemy." Hill's skirmishers pressed forward and soon became actively engaged with the enemy. It was now very dark, and being anxious to obtain the exact position of the enemy and satisfy himself as to their movements, General Jackson rode forward to the line of skirmishers. His position was exceedingly dan- gerous, as the enemy's sharpshooters in the woods in front might at any moment kill or wound him. One of his aids said to him : " General, don't you think this is the wrong place for you?" General Jackson turned to him and said joyfully : " The danger is all over : the enemy is routed ! Go back and tell A. P Hill to press right on !" Upon finishing his observations, and discovering the enemy's skirmishers approaching, he turned to ride back, forgetting, doubtless, the order he had given. As the party came near the Southern lines, they were mistaken for a body of federal cavalry and fired upon. General Jackson was struck by three balls. One entered his left arm, two inches below the shoulder joint, shattering the bone and severing the principal artery; another entered the same arm between the elbow end the wrist, passing THOMAS J. JACKSON. 183 out through the palm of the hand, and the third entered the palm of the right hand, about the middle, and passing through, broke two of the bones. This occurred about 8 o'clock in the evening, on the plank road, about fifty yards in advance of the enemy. One of General Jack- son's staff and two couriers were killed, and another staff officer wounded by this discharge. General Jackson at once fell from his horse, and was caught by Captain Wormley. He said to him calmly, as that officer knelt by him, "All my wounds are by my own men." The firing was now resumed by both armies. The enemy's forces advanced, and charged over General Jack- son as he lay upon the ground. In a few minutes they were driven back and assistance rendered to General Jackson. He was at once placed' on a litter and sent to the rear. He had to be carried, along the line of fire, and one of the litter bearers was shot down, and the general was thrown heavily to the ground, adding to the ipjury done to his arm, and hurting his side severely. Seeing that it would be impossible for the litter-bearers to carry him from the field under such a heavy fire, Gen- eral Jackson directed them to leave him until it slackened, and for five minutes he was left alone, exposed to the fearful storm of balls that swept the field thickly all around him. When the firing slackened,* he was placed in an ambulance and carried to the hospital near Wilder- ness run. As he was being carried from the field, frequent en- quiries were made by the men, "Who have you there?" He turned to the surgeon, who was with him, and said : "Do not tell the troops I am wounded." He lost much blood, and but for the applica'tion of a 184 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL tourniquet, would have bled to death. For two hours he was almost pulseless. At one time he thought he was dying, and the tourniquet was applied. General Hill being disabled by a wound, General Stu- art was sent for, and took command of Jackson's corps. The next day the enemy were routed and driven from Chancellorsville to the banks of the Eappahannock. On the same day General Sedgewick crossed at Fredericks- burg, and carried the hills in the rear of the place. On Monday (4th May,) General Lee moved back with a por- tion of his army, and drove Sedgewick across the river. Having disposed of Sedgewick, he again advanced upon Hooker, who was lying close to the banks of the Rappa- hannock. A severe storm delayed his movement, and Hooker taking advantage of it retreated across the river. After General Jackson was carried to the hospital, and had recovered slightly from the great prostration caused by the loss of so much blood, Drs. Black, Coleman, McGuire and Walls, the surgeons in attendance upon him, held a consultation with reference to his wounds, and decided that amputation was necessa'ry. Dr. McGuire approached the general, and asked him : "If we find amputation necessary, shall it be done at once?" General Jackson replied promptly and firmly : "Yes ! certainly — Dr. McGuire do for me whatever you think right." The operation was performed while the general was under the influence of chloroform, and he ' bore it well. Sometime afterwards, he stated to a friend that his sen- sation in taking chloroform was delightful, that he was conscious of everything that was done to him, that the THOMAS J. JACKSON. 185 sawing of his, Done sounded like the sweetest music, and every feeling was pleasant. , * As soon as General Jackson was wounded, he' sent information of the sad event to General Lee. The mes- senger reached his headquarters about 4 o'clock on Sun- day morning, and found the commander-in-chief resting upon a bed of straw. Upon being informed of General Jackson's misfortune, he exclaimed : " Thank God it is no worse ! God be praised he is still alive!" Then he added: "Any victory is a dear one that deprives us of the services of Jackson, even for a short time." The officer who brought the information remarked that he believed it was General Jackson's intention to have pressed the enemy on Sunday, had he been spared. Gen- eral Lee said quietly : " These people shall be pressed to-day." Rising and dressing, he partook of his simple meal of ham and crackers and set out for the field. The history of that day proved that he remembered his promise. After the defeat of Hooker, General Lee addressed to General Jackson the following noble letter, which is char- acteristic of him : General : I have just received your note informing me that you were wounded. I'canuot express my regret at the occurrence. Could I have dictated events, I should have chosen for the good of the coun- try, to 'nave been disabled ia your stead. I congratulate you upon the victory which is due to your skill and energy. When this note was read to General Jackson, it is said he exclaimed with emotion : "Far better for the Confederacy that ten Jaeksons 24 186 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL should have fallen, than one Lee." Tficn he added, calmly and humbly:. " General Lee should give the glory to God." On Sunday morning he slept for a short ■while. During the day he was very cheerful. Pointing to his mutilated left arm, he said to one of his aids : " Many poople would would regard this as a great mis- fortune. I regard it as one of the greatest blessings of O o CD my life." The officer replied : " All things work together for good to those that love God." "Yes! yes!" was the earnest reply. " That's it." He sent for Mrs. Jackson, who was in Richmond. He asked many questions about the battle of the previ- ous day, and spoke cheerfully of the final result. Turning to a friend, he said : '' If I had not been wounded, or had had an hour more of daylight, I would have cut off the enemy from the road to the United States ford, and we would have had them entirely surrounded, and they would have been obliged to surrender, or cut their way out : they had no other alternative. My troops may sometimes fail in dri- ving the enemy from a position," he added with a smile ; " but the enemy always fail to drive my men from a po- sition." He spoke in the highest terms of the conduct of Gen- eral Rodes during the battle, and said that he had fairly won his major-general's commission, which ought to date from the day of the battle. General Jackson had con- ferred this rank upon him, on the field, and the president afterwards confirmed it. THOMAS J. JACKSON, 187 He complained during the day of the effects of his fall from the litter, though as yet they were not visible.- On Sunday night he slept well. On Monday he was carried to Chandler's house, near Guinea's station. He was still cheerful, and questioned those around him as to the battle of Sunday. When he was told of the grand charge of his old " Stonewall 'bri- gade," led by General Stuart in person, how with the^ shout " Charge, and remember Jackson, !" they pressed on in that irresistible advance, over the dead and the dying, and how with torn and mangled ranks they drove the enemy from the field, his eyes fkshed, his breast heaved, and he exclaimed with deep emotion : "It was just like them ! it was just like them ! They are a noble body of men." Afterwards he remarked that " the men who live through this war will be proud to say to their children, ' I was one of the Stonewall brigade.'" He also said that the term " Stonewall" belonged to his old brigade, rather than to himself ; and insisted that it should be called by it. He was very much affected by the news of the death of his friend, General Paxton. During his sufferings, his mind very frequently ran upon religious subjects. Speaking with one of his staff as to wb ether those who were miraculously cured by Jesus, ever had a return of the disease, he exclaimed : " I do not think they could have returned, for the power was too great — the poor paralytic would never again shake with palsy. Oh ! for infinite power !" While he was being carried to Guinea's, he complained of the . intense heat, and asked that a wet cloth might be placed to his stomach. This was done, and he 188 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL seemed to be greatly relieved. On Monday night lie slept well. On Tuesday he seemed to be better and ate with relish. During the day he asked his surgeon : " Can you tell me from the appearance of my wounds, how long I will be kept from the field ?" He was told that he was doing remarkably well, and if he continued to improve, it would not be long. Soon after this he expressed a wish to see the members of his staff, but was advised not to do so, as he needed repose. On Wednesday his wounds seemed to be improving. It had been arranged that he should go to Richmond to-day, but a rain prevented it. At night he slept very badly. His surgeon, who had been without sleep for three nights, was advised to take some rest, and while he was asleep General Jackson complained of sickness, and ordered his servant to place a wet cloth to his stomach. About day- light, the surgeon was awakened by this servant, who in- formed him that the general was suffering great pain. Upon examination it was found that pneumonia had set in, resulting from his exposure on the night before the battle. His system was too weak and exhausted to cast it off, and the disease increased alarmingly. On Thursday Mrs. Jackson arrived from Richmond. This gave him great satisfaction, and he seemed to im- prove under the faithful nursing of his wife. He was in pain during the clay, but at night all pain had left him. Still he suffered greatly from prostration. On Friday he was free from pain, but the prostration increased. Saturday passed away, and he grew feebler every hour. On Sunday morning it was evident to all that he was THOMAS J. JACKSON. 189* sinking rapidly. Mrs. Jackson was informed of this, and requested to make it known to her husband. Upon this day he was very calm and cheerful, and en- deavored to cheer those around him. Turning to his wife, he said to her tenderly : " I know you would gladly give your life for me, but I am perfectly resigned. Do not be sad : I hope I shall recover. Pray for me, but always remember in your prayers to use the petition, ' Thy will be done.' " He advised her in the event of his death, to return to her father's home, and added : "You have a kind, good father. But there is no one so kind and good as your heavenly father." During his illness he manifested towards all around him, and especially to his wife, a greater degree of gen- tleness and tenderness chan^is usual with him. It was the calm sternness of the warrior giving place to the out- gushings of a pure and noble heart. When the surgeons told his wife that he could not live more than two hours, she informed him of the fact. He replied that he was willing to die, and added : "It will be infinite gain to be translated to heaven, and be with Jesus." It had ever been with him a cherished wish to die on the Sabbath, and now God was about to grant his wish. It. had been his custom to see that religious services were held regularly in his camp, and early on Sunday morn- ing he asked who was to preach to the men that day, and upon learning that they would not be deprived that day of their accustomed services, seemed satisfied. After parting with his wife and his friends, and sen.d- inf messages to the various generals with whom he had *i.90 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL been associated, and to his men, and expressing a wish he had frequently mentioned -before, that General Ewell should succeed him in the command of his corps, and his desire to be buried in Lexington, Virginia, he became slightly delerious. Occasionally in his wanderings he would speak of some religious subject, and then give an order. Among his last words, he was heard to exclaim: "Order A. P Hill to prepare for action." "Pass the infantry to the front." "Tell Major Hawks to send for- ward provisions to the men." "Let us cross over the river, and rest under the shade of the trees." Then he sank gradually,, and at fifteen minutes after three o'clock, in the afternoon of the tenth of May, he expired peacefully. His soul had passed over the dark river and was resting under the trees of heaven. The brief but eventful life of t™ great and good man was ended, and now in his fortieth year he was lost to his country that needed him so much. The news of the wounding of General Jackson filled the army with the most profound and undisguised grief. His men loved him devotedly, and he was the idol of the whole, army. Many stout-hearted veterans, who had, under his guicla'nce, borne hardships and privations in- numerable, and dangers the most appalling, without a murmur, wept like children when told that their idolized general was no more. The death of General Jackson was communicated to the arnry in the following order : Northern Virg May 11th, 1863. General Orders No. 61. With deep grief the commanding general announces to the away the death of Lieutenant-general T. J. Jackson, who expired on the 10th inst., at quarter past 3 P M. Tlje daring, skill and energy Headquarters Army op Northern Virginia, | THOMAS J. JACKSON. 191 of this great and good soldier, by the decree of an All-Wise Provi- dence, are now lost to us. But while we mourn his death, *ve feel that his spirit still lives, and will inspire the whole arrSy with his indomitable courage, and unshaken confidence in God, as our hope and strength. Let his name be a watchword to his corps, who have followed him to victory on so many fields. Let his officers and sol- diers emulate his invincible determination to do everything in the defence of our beloved country. • R. E. Lee, General. Throughout the country the news of the wounding of General Jackson had carried the greatest grief and alarm. The people had learned to look upon him as the great champion of the South, and they were filled with serious apprehension, when they contemplated the proba- bility of losing his services. The greatest 'anxiety to hear from him was everywhere manifested; for there was not a heart in the South thafr'did not throb more warmly when the name of "Stonewall Jackson" was mentioned. A week of long and anxious suspense passed away, and at last, when all were, to a certain degree, prepared for it, the news came that the idol of the South was no more. The first information of the death of General Jackson was telegraphed to the governor of Virginia, and then hurried all over the land, carrying sorrow wherever it went. % On Monday morning the 11th of May, it was announced that the remains of General Jackson would reach Rich- mond during the day, and the mayor of the city at once requested all persons to suspend business after ten o'clock, in token of their respect- for the departed hero. All stores, workshops, the government departments, and all places in which labor was performed, were closed. Flags -were hung at half-mast, and a deep silence reigned over S5 192 LIEUTEXANT-G&NERAL the capital of Virginia. Large crowds filled the streets, and in spite of the intense heat, waited patiently for the arrival of the cars from Fredericksburg. Shortly after four o'clock in the afternoon, the special train containing the precious burden, moved slowly into the city- Only the solemn peals of the bells as they toiled their mournful knell, broke the deep silence that reigned over everything. At the depot the coffin was removed from the cars, and placed in a hearse to be carried to the mansion of the governor. The escort which received it consisted of Major-general Elzey and staff, the State Guard of Vir- ginia, with colors shrouded in mourning, the forty-fourth North Carolina and the first Virginia regiments, (after which came the hearse and General Jackson's staff,) the city authorities and citizens on foot. The remains were escorted to the mansion of the gov- ernor, and placed in the reception parlor. The lid of the coffin was removed, the new flag of the Confederacy, which had never before been used for any purposed, was thrown over it, and a single wreath of laurel laid upon the lifeless breast. During the evening his friends were allowed to visit the body. The only change that was perceptive, was that the features seemed somewhat smaller than they were in life. But there was still the firm, grave expression which had always dwelt there, and above all, there rested upon the lifeless countenance an expression of happiness and peace, so perfect and so in- tense, that the gazer was awed and thrilled by it. During the night the body was embalmed, and a plaster cast of his features taken, in order that they might be preserved in marble. THOMAS J. JACKSON. 193 The next day, all the honors that his native state could lavish upon her noble son were heaped upon him. At eleven o'clock his body was removed from the executive mansion, and conveyed with appropriate ceremonies to the capitol of "Virginia. The procession was formed in the following order, the troops marching with reversed arms : ORDER OF PR.O CESSION. A brass baad. The 10th regiment of Virginia infantry. The 56th regiment of Virginia infantry. The State Guard of Virginia. Major-general Pickett and staff, mounted. A battery (6 pieces) of artillery. A squadron of cavalry. THE HEARSE, containing the coffin, With Major-general Swell, Brigadier-generals Winder, Churchill, Corse, Stuart, (G. H.) Kemper and Garnett, and Admiral Forrest of the navy as pall bearers. The favorite horse of General Jackson, fully caparisoned and led by his servant, The members of the old " Stonewall brigade," who were, present in the city. A band of music. Major-general Elzey and staff. The officials of the military department of Henrico. A carriage containing the president of the Confederate States. The members of the cabinet on foot. The heads of bureaux, and their clerks, on foot. The governor of Virginia and his aids. The state officers and clerks. The mayor and city authorities. The judges of the state and confederate courts. Citizens on foot. v. The procession moved from the executive mansion, 194 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL down Governor street into Main, up Main to Second, through second to Grace, and down Grace to the capitol square. The streets were filled with large crowds. The mourn- ful cortege moved on in silence, which was only broken by the solemn strains of music, and the discharge of ar- •tillery at intervals of half an hour. Tears rolled down many cheeks, and hundreds who had known General Jackson only by his great deeds, wept as though mourn- ing for a brother. Such a universal outburst of grief had never been witnessed in Virginia since the death of Washington. Upon the arrival of the procession at the square, the column was halted, the body removed and borne into the capitol, where it was laid in state in the hall of the house of representatives of the Confederate States. At least twenty thousand persons visited the hall to behold the remains of the hero that day. The next morning the remains were placed on a special train and conveyed to Lynchburg. It was hoped that General Jackson would be buried in Hollywood cemetery, near Richmond. There Virginia has prepared a last resting-place for her honored children. There rest the ashes of Monroe and Tyler and many of the good and brave of this revolution, and it was hoped that there too would rest the dust of General Jackson. But it was his wish to sleep in his dearly loved home in the Valley, and thither all that remained of him was carried. On Wed- nesday morning the remains passed through Lynchburg. Minute guns were fired, bells were tolled, and a large procession olj, citizens followed the body through the city. On Thursday afternoon they reached Lexington. They THOMAS J. JACKSON. 195 were met at the canal by the corps of cadets, the pro- fessors of the Institute, and a large number of citizens, and escorted to the Institute barracks. The body of General Jackson was placed in the old lecture room which had once been his. Two years ago he had left it an humble and almost unknown man'; now he returned to it with the hero's laurel wreath encircling his brows, and enshrined forever in the hearts of his countrymen. With the exception of the heavy mourning drapery with which it was hung, the room was just as he had left it. It had not been occupied during his absence. The body was deposited just in front of the ghair in which he used to sit. It was a beautiful and a touching scene, and brought tears to every eye that witnessed it. Guns were fired every half hour during the day by the cadet battery, and the deepest grief exhibited by every one. The next day, the 15th of May, General Jackson was buried in the cemetery at Lexington, where rest the remains of his first wife and child. He- has gone, but his spirit is still with his countrymen. Oh ! may it animated each heart and nerve each arm to strike, as he struck, for the freedom of the land. There in the beautiful Valley of Virginia, with which his name is so imperishably connected, the hero lies sleeping. Around him the " everlasting hills" keep eternal guard, and the deep and unwavering love of his stricken, but still glorious mother, watches with tender devotion over his sacred dust. Ages shall roll away, empires crumble into dust, nations pass' into oblivion, 196 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSON. but the memory of Jackson will still shine out in all its clear and radient splendor. And when the last preat trump shall sound, and the radient light of the resurrec- tion morn shall break away the gloom which overshrouds die world, Virginia, whose pure heart beats but for God md duty, shall there be found still watching by the tomb )f . Jackson. And yet, he is not Virginia's alone : God gave him to he world. '